What Are The Symptoms Of A Hip Fracture
The following are the most common symptoms of a hip fracture:
- Hip pain or pain that you can feel in your knee
- Low back pain
- Inability to stand or walk
- Bruising and swelling
- Foot turned out at an odd angle, making your leg look shorter
The symptoms of hip fracture may seem like other medical conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Rib Fractures Can Result In Serious Complications
ROCHESTER, Minn. October 22, 2012. Rib fractures are one of the most common bone breaks in older adults. While there’s no direct treatment for fractured ribs that remain in alignment, medical care is still important to avoid serious complications, according to the October issue of Mayo Clinic Health Letter.
Rib fractures can result from major trauma, such as a car crash. Rib bones moved out of alignment can cause life-threatening complications including punctures and damage to the lungs and other critical blood vessels or organs. About 19 percent of older adults who sustained fractures of three or four ribs died from complications, according to one study.
But fractured ribs can occur from more common circumstances, too. In another study of older adults, 33 percent of rib fractures were caused by moderate trauma, such as falling from a standing position. And 40 percent of rib fractures had no identifiable trauma and were likely caused by the stress of a cough, a repetitive movement like a golf swing or other nontraumatic events.
While rib fractures from mild or moderate trauma or repetitive movement may seem less severe, they are still painful and can lead to serious complications. Pain often occurs with deep breathing. When patients can’t breathe deeply or cough, the risk of pneumonia increases. About 30 to 35 percent of people over 65 with rib fractures contract pneumonia.
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What Can I Do To Prevent A Hip Fracture
Preventive measures include taking enough calcium every day.
If you are a woman at menopause, you should consider having a bone density test. This measures your bone mineral content and the thickness of your bone. This measurement can indicate decreased bone mass. This is a condition in which your bones are more brittle and more prone to break or fracture easily. A bone density test is used primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk.
Women make less estrogen when menopause starts. Most people do not know they have osteoporosis until they have a fracture.
Another way to help prevent hip fracture is to do regular weight-bearing exercise, such as walking, jogging, or hiking. Exercise programs such as tai chi help promote strength and balance.
Other preventive measures may include:
- Taking medicines as prescribed by your healthcare provider to prevent bone loss
- Eating a diet rich in vitamin D and calcium, including milk, cottage cheese, yogurt, sardines, and broccoli
- Stopping smoking
- Not drinking too much alcohol
- Keeping objects, such as electrical cords, off the stairs and floors to prevent falls
- Using slip-resistant rugs next to the bathtub, and installing grab bars in the tub
- Positioning night lights from the bedroom to the bathroom
- Using rug pads or nonskid backing to keep rugs in place
- Not using unsteady furniture or step ladders to stand on
- Visiting an ophthalmologist every year to have vision checked and vision loss treated
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Seek Treatment At Crystal Run Healthcare
Our orthopedic surgeons specialize in the latest minimally invasive techniques that lead to less pain, scarring, and hip surgery complications. A faster recovery and more favorable outcome are our goals. Our surgeons can perform a total hip replacement, anterior hip replacement, hip resurfacing, or hip arthroscopy. From diagnostic imaging to pain management and physical therapy, elderly patients with a broken hip can depend on us for the best care.
To learn more about Crystal Run Healthcare and find a hip specialist, contact us at 845-703-6999, submit your questions online, or request a callback today.
Causes Of Death After Hip Fracture
What do patients die from after a hip fracture? The 2011 study found that when compared with controls of similar ages, a greater number of women died of pneumonia and cognitive disorders.
In the analysis, a number of causes of short-term mortality were suggested, including problems that can occur after surgery .
In addition, health problems that could have led to the fall in the first place such as dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , and cardiovascular diseaseare also cited as contributors to the increased mortality.
The researchers note that generally speaking, people who break a hip are more functionally impaired before the fracture when compared with those who do not have a fracture.
While age is a major risk factor for falls, a person who is healthy and fit may be considered to have a lower chronological age, leaving them less susceptible to falls and fractures.
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A Note About Hip Protectors
In the past it has been suggested that wearing special padding around your hip might reduce the chance of breaking a hip if you fall. Early reports of some trials suggested that this was a good idea. However, further trials suggested that hip protectors are not effective in preventing a broken hip in those who live at home. Their effectiveness for patients who are particularly frail – for example, those living in a nursing home – is uncertain.
Risk Factors Of Complications
In this study, the only significant risk factor of developing a complication was having a high CCI . Other studies also show that having more comorbidities is the strongest risk factor for complications . Risk factors close to statistical significance are having an A3 type intertrochanteric fracture and getting general instead of spinal anesthesia. The A3 type intertrochanteric fracture is classified as unstable and more difficult to treat than other trochanteric fractures. Patients seem to need more analgesics , which might lead to more complications. Type of anesthesia is a modifiable risk factor. In this study, the number of patients that underwent general anesthesia was high . Whether general or spinal anesthesia leads to fewer complications in hip fracture patients is still a matter of debate . The recent Cochrane review did not find a difference in either technique and asked for more research . Most important factor seems to be the patient himself: for some cardiac conditions general anesthesia is more safer, for other pulmonary or neurological conditions spinal anesthesia is preferred.
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Types Of Anaesthetic Used In Hip Fracture Surgery
You may be given a choice about the type of anaesthetic used for your surgery. The doctor who provides the anaesthetic will advise and help you decide. Options include spinal anaesthesia or general anaesthetic – you can find out all the details in our leaflet called Anaesthesic for Hip or Knee Replacement.
Elderly Patients With Pneumonia Twice As Likely To Die As Those With Broken Hips
Posted by RT Staff | Apr 18, 2020 | Pneumonia |
Elderly patients who are hospitalized with pneumonia are twice as likely to die as those hospitalized with hip fractures, yet many elderly people fail to accurately assess their risk of pneumonia, concludes research which will be presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases .
The study is by Leslie Grammatico-Guillon, University of Tours, France, and colleagues.
Pneumonia is a common lung infection that can be life-threatening, especially in elderly people. Despite these concerns, elderly people mostly fail to accurately gauge their own pneumonia risk, leading to inadequate prevention efforts, especially low uptake of existing vaccines. The mismatch between the high risk of disease and death from pneumonia and low awareness of its potential severity represent a driver of unhealthy aging.
On the contrary, breaking a hip is widely recognized as a major concern for the elderly. To change this trivialisation of pneumonia in the elderly and help increase vaccination uptake, the authors compared 2-year outcomes for elderly patients aged 80 years and over after hospitalization for acute respiratory infection or hip fracture .
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What Are Possible Complications Of Hip Fracture
Serious complications can result from a hip fracture. Blood clots can happen in the veins, usually in your legs. If a clot breaks off, it can travel to a blood vessel in your lung. This blockage, called a pulmonary embolism, can be fatal.
Other complications can include:
- Nonunion or improper union of your bone
- Mental deterioration after surgery in older patients
- Bedsores from lying in the same position with minimal movement
With some fractures, blood can’t circulate properly to the head of the thigh bone. This results in a loss of blood supply to this area. This is called femoral avascular necrosis. This complication may happen, depending on the type of fracture and the anatomy of your blood supply to the head of the thigh bone. This is more common with femoral neck fractures.
Most people spend 1 to 2 weeks in the hospital after a hip fracture. The recovery period may be lengthy and may include admission to a rehabilitation facility. If you were previously able to live independently, you will generally need help from home caregivers or family, or need the services of a long-term care facility. Hip fractures can result in a loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and depression. This is especially true for older people.
What Is The Prognosis After A Hip Fracture
Outlook can depend to some extent on how fit you were before you broke your hip. However, even the fittest of people do not always regain full mobility afterwards. If you were less fit when you broke your hip, you may find that after a hip fracture, it becomes difficult for you to live independently.
Some people need extra care when they move back home after a hip fracture. Others may need to move into a residential or nursing home so that they can get the extra care with mobility that they need.
Some people have persistent pain in their hip area after a fracture. If this is severe you should seek medical advice.
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How Can Patient Outcomes Be Improved
Together with controlling immediate post-surgery pain and symptoms, patients should receive therapeutic rehabilitation and functional training for the best chance of regaining mobility.
Taking individual capabilities, physical health and function into account, therapeutic rehabilitation may include improving the range of motion, pool therapy, and strengthening and progressive resistance exercises. Functionaltraining will include gait training, and resistance and balance exercises.
Even if the patient has not had surgery, rehabilitation is necessary to begin moving as quickly as possible to avoid the serious complications of being immobilised.
Some data suggest beginning physical activity as soon as possible post-surgery will reduce the likelihood of death. What we dont yet know is the type, intensity and duration of physical activity that will give the best results.
Nutrition can also help recovery. Some data has shown poor nutrition at the time of the fracture reduced peoples ability to walk unaided six months after the fracture, compared to those with good nutrition.
There are mixed messages regarding whether nutritional supplements help improve function after a hip fracture. But the combination of protein intake and physical activity is known to increase muscle mass and function. Good muscle mass and function reduce frailty and improve balance, thereby reducing the risk of falls and subsequent fracture.
Hip Fractures In People With Dementia
People with dementia have a higher chance of experiencing a hip fracture. People with dementia who live in their own homes and take antipsychotic medications are also more likely to fracture their hips. And not surprisingly, those with both dementia and osteoporosis have the greatest risk for a hip fracture, according to some research.
Those with dementia who fracture their hip also have a higher likelihood of developing delirium during their hospital stay. If delirium develops, it can lead to longer hospitalizations, poorer recovery in terms of mobility and longer facility care. The recovery and rehabilitation of someone with dementia after a hip fracture can be complicated by memory loss. Often, a weight-bearing limit is placed on someone after surgery and the individual with dementia may not remember that she can’t just get up and walk.
Mortality rates in people who fracture their hip are between 12-33% after one year.
When an older adult with Alzheimer’s or other dementia experiences a hip fracture, several complications are possible.
- Less likely to rehabilitate to their previous level of functioning
- More likely to require ongoing facility care
- The higher rate of death following a hip fracture
- More likely to develop pneumonia related to decreased mobility
- Less likely to receive adequate pain medication, potentially increasing narcotic use when severe hip pain develops
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Can I Prevent A Hip Fracture
You may not be able to prevent a broken hip. But you can lower your risk of a fracture by:
- Being active: Exercise increases muscle strength and helps you prevent bone loss. Swimming, tai chi and weight-bearing exercises improve strength and balance.
- Eating right: A diet that includes vitamin D and calcium can strengthen your bones.
- Getting regular checkups: Talk to your provider about bone density tests that spot signs of osteoporosis. Your provider may recommend medications called bisphosphonates that slow bone loss and strengthen bones.
- Preventing accidents: Keep your home free from hazards that might cause a fall. Take care when using stairs or walking in icy conditions. If you have Parkinsons disease, talk to your provider about how to prevent falls and maintain your balance.
- Staying healthy: Maintain a healthy weight, dont smoke and avoid drinking too much alcohol.
- Updating your eyeglasses: Vision problems can increase your risk of a fall. Get your vision checked with regular eye exams. Make sure your eyeglass and contact lens prescriptions are updated.
What Makes Hip Fractures So Dangerous For The Elderly
Every year, about 300,000 Americans are hospitalized after fracturing their hip in a fall.1 A hip fracture is difficult to recover from, in part because most patients are elderly. In fact, a study published in 2015 in Mediators of Inflammation revealed 87% to 96% of people who suffer from hip fractures are over 65 years of age.2 Unfortunately the preliminary injury, and often subsequent hip surgery, can lead to a significant decline in independence.
In a 2009 study published in Oxford Academic, just 41% of patients over 90 treated with intensive rehabilitation became fully independent and ambulatory again, while 80% returned to a pre-injury global functional level.3 An overview of various trial studies found the one-year mortality rate for elderly patients with a hip fracture is 21%, and that the 12-year mortality rate doubles once elderly individuals fracture their hips.4
Why is a broken hip so dangerous for an older person? Hip fractures are most often caused by trips, falls off chairs, and other low-energy accidents. Here are some of the factors that put older hip fracture patients in danger:
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Why Are Hip Fractures Life Threatening
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Combined with the trauma of a fracture and surgery, an existing health condition may significantly increase the risk of death. Death after a hip fracture may also be related to additional complications of the fracture, such as infections, internal bleeding, stroke or heart failure.
Additionally, what is life expectancy after hip fracture? Some reports show that up to 50% of patients with hip fracture die within six months and many of those who survive do not recover their baseline independence and function. In recent decades the increase in life expectancy after 60 years of age has led to an exponential growth in hip fractures.
Also asked, why is a hip fracture so dangerous?
The disease causes bones to become weak and brittle and new bone isn’t produced as quickly as older bone tissue is removed. Older patients with reduced muscle mass are more at risk of falling due to mobility and balance issues and, subsequently, suffering from a hip fracture.
Why do broken hips kill elderly?
Elderly people who break their hip face nearly three times the danger of dying in the year afterwards, a study has found. They can experience heart problems following surgery, pneumonia and blood clots while the broken hip itself can make someone dramatically more frail by the disability it causes.
Can Hip Fractures Be Treated
Hip fracture treatment depends on your age, overall health and type of injury. Most hip fractures require surgery within a day or two after the injury. But some people arent healthy enough for surgery due to their age or other conditions.
Your provider will recommend the most appropriate treatment for you, which may include:
- Surgery: Most hip fractures need surgical repair. There are several hip surgery techniques. Your provider may use metal screws, nails or plates to secure the bones and keep them in place.
- Hip replacement: Depending on the type of injury, you may need a partial or total hip replacement. After hip replacement surgery, your provider may recommend that you recover in a rehabilitation facility.
- Physical therapy : Your physical therapist will create a PT program to help you regain movement, flexibility and strength. If you had a hip replacement, special exercises after hip replacement surgery can significantly improve your range of motion.
- Medications: Over-the-counter and prescription pain medications can help you manage pain and reduce inflammation. If you had surgery for a hip fracture, you may receive antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection.
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