Saturday, September 16, 2023

What Kinds Of Pneumonia Are There

Bronchitis Vs Pneumonia: Why Theyre Related And How Theyre Different

Pneumonia: Types, Classification, Symptoms & Management â Respiratory Medicine | Lecturio

A pneumonia diagnosis is based on your medical history, a physical exam, and certain test results. Your doctor determines which type of pneumonia you have based on how you became infected, what your X-ray or lung exam reveals, and which kind of germ is responsible for your infection.

During a physical exam, your doctor will check your vital signs and listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. Decreased breath sounds is an indication of a lot of inflammation, says Michelle Barron, MD, a professor in the division of infectious diseases at University of Colorado School of Medicine in Aurora.

If your doctor suspects pneumonia, they may order further diagnostic tests, such as a chest X-ray to help determine the extent of the infection. Blood tests and an analysis of the patients sputum can pinpoint whats causing the pneumonia. Pulse oximetry measures the oxygen level in your blood .

Pneumonia Arising In Institutional Settings

  • Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs contracted during a hospital stay. This type of pneumonia tends to be more serious because patients in the hospital already have weakened defense mechanisms, and the infecting organisms are usually more dangerous than those encountered in the community. Hospital patients are particularly vulnerable to Gram-negative bacteria, which are resistant to many antibiotics, and staphylococci. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is also called nosocomial pneumonia.
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia . A subgroup of hospital-acquired pneumonia is VAP, a very serious infection contracted by patients on ventilators in hospitals and long-term nursing facilities.
  • Nursing-home acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia acquired in a nursing home or other long-term care facility is the second most common type of infection in these facilities, and it is usually bacterial. This type of pneumonia is sometimes difficult to diagnose as older populations are less likely to report fever, chills, and chest pain. Chest radiography and physical exam are necessary. Sputum sample and antigen tests may be helpful.

The term “healthcare associated pneumonia” is also utilized for all the above types of pneumonia as a group.

How Is Pneumonia Classified

It should be noted that, in pneumonia, the main causative agent of the symptoms is the patients own immune system, not just the viral or bacterial components that can infest the linings of the lower respiratory tract. The macrophages settled in this region are in charge of dealing with foreign agents, and in the initial stages, they are the cause of the clinical picture.

Macrophages phagocytose microorganisms, but also induce an inflammatory response, by binding through their membrane receptors to the pathogens own compounds. Upon recognition, this cell body synthesizes cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-8, and IL-1, attracting neutrophils to the site of infection. All this triggers tissue inflammation and, therefore, the aforementioned shortness of breath and chest pain.

This condition can be multifactorial, and it is also possible to classify it according to the place of infection, pathological involvement, host reaction, host type, or the area of acquisition of the pathology. Then, we tell you the characteristics of these most important typologies. Do not miss it.

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Critical Role Of Pneumococcal Vaccine In Preventing Pneumonia

In children aged three months to four years, the most common type of bacterial pneumonia is Strep. pneumoniae. In children greater than age four, it remains in the top three most common types. The pneumococcal vaccine series, started at two months of age, significantly reduces the rates of bacterial pneumonia from Strep. Pneumoniae. The vaccine is usually administered during wellness or prevention visits and cannot be given to a child with a fever. This emphasizes the need for healthcare access globally.6

With global vaccination rates currently plateauing, the challenges of diagnosing and treating community acquired pneumonia are even more pertinent for prevention of severe respiratory illness. Vaccine uptake challenges can be overcome with global measures to increase the access and use of vaccines. Addressing vaccine use and providing education about common pneumonia symptoms can aid in early diagnosis of pneumonia and lower the rate of severe respiratory illness and prolonged hospitalization.


  • World Health Organization Health Topics. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals: National programs and systems on improving vaccination demand and addressing hesitancy. 17 June 2020 update.

  • Popovsky EY, Florin TA. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Childhood. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. 2020 B978-0-08-102723-3.00013-5. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-102723-3.00013-5

  • Mild Moderate Or Severe Pneumonia


    To be able to provide the right treatment, doctors also classify community-acquired pneumonia as mild, moderate or severe. They take the risk of complications into account as well.

    Pneumonia is considered to be mild with no increased risk if the patient

    • is younger than 65 years old,
    • is conscious and lucid,
    • has normal blood pressure and pulse,
    • is not breathing too fast ,
    • has enough oxygen in their blood,
    • has not been given any in the past three months,
    • has not been in the hospital in the past three months, and
    • does not have any other severe medical conditions.

    People with mild pneumonia can be treated at home and are given in tablet form.

    The signs of moderate pneumonia include drowsiness and confusion, low blood pressure, worsening shortness of breath, and risk factors such as old age and underlying diseases. People with these symptoms need to have treatment at a hospital. Some will be given a combination of two different , at least at the beginning of the treatment.

    Pneumonia is classified as severe when the heart, the kidneys or the circulatory system are at risk of failing, or if the lungs can no longer take in enough oxygen. Treatment with an antibiotic infusion in intensive care is then usually needed, sometimes with artificial respiration or additional drugs such as corticosteroids.

    Pneumonia in children is only classified as either not severe or severe.

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    Different Types Of Pneumonia

    Pneumonia is an inflammation of the airspaces in the lung most commonly caused by infections. Bacteria, viruses, or fungi can cause the infection. There are also a few noninfectious types of pneumonia that are caused by inhaling or aspirating foreign matter or toxic substances into the lungs. Around 50,000 people die each year of pneumonia in the U.S. Although anyone of any age can be affected, pneumonia is more common in elderly people and often occurs when the immune system becomes weakened via a prior infection or another condition. Pneumonia is much more serious when it affects older adults, infants and young children or those with chronic medical conditions. Here is more about some of the most common causes and types of pneumonia.

    Different Types Of Pneumonia And Their Symptoms Based On The Parts Of The Lungs Involved

    Symptoms of pneumonia may differ slightly based on what parts of the lungs are involved. Our lungs have large air pipes, smaller air pipes, and even smaller air pipes that end in air sacs. The air sacs are where the air exchange takes place. In addition to the air sacs and air tubes, there are also connective tissues that hold the whole lung together. Certain types of pneumonia involve certain parts of the lungs.

    Here are the types of pneumonia and their symptoms based on the parts of the lungs involved:

    • Lobar pneumonia
    • Double pneumonia

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    What Causes Bacterial Pneumonia

    Doctors often refer to typical and atypical pneumonias, based on the signs and symptoms of the condition. This can help to predict the type of bacteria causing the pneumonia, the duration of the illness, and the optimal treatment method.

    Typical pneumonia comes on very quickly.

    • Typical pneumonia usually results in a high fever and shaking chills.
    • Typical pneumonia usually leads to the production of yellow or brown sputum when coughing.
    • There may be chest pain, which is usually worse with breathing or coughing. The chest also may be sore when it is touched or pressed.
    • Typical pneumonia can cause shortness of breath, especially if the person has any chronic lung conditions such as asthma or emphysema.
    • Because chest pain also can be a sign of other serious medical conditions, do not try to self-diagnose.
    • Older people can have confusion or a change in their mental abilities as a sign of pneumonia or other infection.

    Atypical pneumonia has a gradual onset.

    • It is often referred to as “walking pneumonia.”
    • Sometimes it follows another illness in the days to weeks before the pneumonia.
    • The fever is usually lower, and shaking chills are less likely.

    What Are The Treatments For Pneumonia

    Pneumonia: Types, Classification, Symptoms & Management â Respiratory Medicine | Lecturio

    Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia, which germ is causing it, and how severe it is:

    • Antibiotics treat bacterial pneumonia and some types of fungal pneumonia. They do not work for viral pneumonia.
    • In some cases, your provider may prescribe antiviral medicines for viral pneumonia
    • Antifungal medicines treat other types of fungal pneumonia

    You may need to be treated in a hospital if your symptoms are severe or if you are at risk for complications. While there, you may get additional treatments. For example, if your blood oxygen level is low, you may receive oxygen therapy.

    It may take time to recover from pneumonia. Some people feel better within a week. For other people, it can take a month or more.

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    The 6 Different Types Of Pneumonia Explained By Doctors

    It’s easy to assume all cases of pneumonia are created equal, but there are actually several different types of the infectionand knowing the kind of pneumonia that you have can be crucial in order to get you the proper care you need.

    “The different types of pneumonia can sometimes require very different treatments,” Thomas Monaco, MD, assistant professor of medicine-pulmonary at the Baylor College of Medicine, tells Health. “For example, one group of bacteria that causes pneumonia may not respond to the same antibiotic as another group, and antibiotics will not help at all if the cause of the pneumonia is due to a virus or some of the more uncommon causes of pneumonia.”

    Shweta Sood, MD, MS, a pulmonologist at Penn Medicine, agrees. “For us, it’s really helpful to know the type because it influences our therapies for that specific patient, including how aggressive they should be,” Dr. Sood tells Health. And once your doctor can figure out the type of pneumonia you have, they can get you the right treatment to help you feel like yourself again sooner.

    But while you’re probably familiar with what pneumonia is, you might be a little unsure of the details. Quick recap: Pneumonia is an infection of the tiny air sacs in the lungs, called alveoli, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , and it can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages.

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    How Are Different Types Of Pneumonia Classified

    Doctors classify different types of pneumonia into various groups. This allows them to describe the disease more exactly, and more importantly, to start off with the correct treatment.

    The various types of pneumonia are classified according to a number of characteristics. To treat these types, it’s essential to know whether somebody caught pneumonia at home, in a hospital, or in a nursing home.

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    What Can I Do To Feel Better If I Have Pneumonia

    • Finish all medications and therapies prescribed by your doctor. Do not stop taking antibiotics when you start feeling better. Continue taking them until no pills remain. If you dont take all your antibiotics, your pneumonia may come back.
    • If over-the-counter medicines to reduce fever have been recommended , take as directed on the label. Never give aspirin to children.
    • Drink plenty of fluids to help loosen phlegm.
    • Quit smoking if you smoke. Dont be around others who smoke or vape. Surround yourself with as much clean, chemical-free air as possible.
    • Use a humidifier, take a steamy shower or bath to make it easier for you to breathe.
    • Get lots of rest. Dont rush your recovery. It can take weeks to get your full strength back.

    If at any time you start to feel worse, call your doctor right away.

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    To be able to provide the right treatment, doctors also classify community-acquired pneumonia as mild, moderate or severe. They take the risk of complications into account as well.

    Pneumonia is considered to be mild with no increased risk if the patient

    • is younger than 65 years old,
    • is able to think and communicate clearly,
    • has a normal blood pressure and pulse,
    • isn’t breathing too fast ,
    • has enough oxygen in their blood,
    • hasn’t been given any in the past three months,
    • hasn’t been in a hospital in the past three months, and
    • doesn’t have any other severe medical conditions.

    People with mild can be treated at home and are given antibiotic tablets.

    People are diagnosed with moderate pneumonia if they have symptoms such as drowsiness and confusion, low blood pressure, worsening shortness of breath, and risk factors such as old age and other diseases. They then need to have treatment at a hospital. Some will be given a combination of two different antibiotics, at least at the beginning of the treatment.

    Pneumonia is considered to be severe if vital organs or systems such as the heart, the kidneys or the circulatory system are at risk of failing, or if the lungs can no longer absorb enough oxygen. People then usually need treatment with antibiotics through a drip in the intensive care unit of a hospital. Sometimes other treatments are needed too, for instance with steroids or artificial respiration.

    Pneumonia in children is only classified as either not severe or severe.

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    What Other Problems Can Pneumonia Cause

    Sometimes pneumonia can cause serious complications such as:

    • Bacteremia, which happens when the bacteria move into the bloodstream. It is serious and can lead to .
    • Lung abscesses, which are collections of pus in cavities of the lungs
    • Pleural disorders, which are conditions that affect the pleura. The pleura is the tissue that covers the outside of the lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity.
    • Respiratory failure

    Bacterial Pneumonia And Bacteria

    The most common form of bacterial pneumonia in the U.S. is Streptococcus pneumonia. It can happen singularly or in combination with the flu or a cold. Bacterial pneumonia that affects only one lobe of the lung is called lobar pneumonia.

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is a bacteria-like affliction that leads to pneumonia, usually in a mild form. Young people who suffer from mycoplasma often do not require bed rest, but it is advisable that elderly individuals take greater care and receive enough rest and medication to combat the disease.

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    Is Pneumonia Treated Any Differently In Children

    Essentially no. Just like adults, bacterial causes of pneumonia in children may be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics are not used to treat pneumonia caused by viruses. Flu-related pneumonia may be treated with antiviral medicine if caught early in the course of illness. Most cases of pneumonia are treated with comfort care measures that ease symptoms. These may include:

    • Drinking more fluids.
    • Getting more rest.
    • Taking over-the-counter medicines for cough and acetaminophen for fever. Be sure to check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you have any questions or concerns about giving medicines to your child.
    • Using a cool mist humidifier in your childs room.

    Preventing Transmission Of Covid

    Pneumonia: types, causes, and treatment

    At this time there is no vaccine and no medication available that can prevent COVID-19. However, there are a number of ways to protect yourself and others around you from getting COVID-19. To help prevent the spread of COVID-19 within the community, the governments throughout the world and in the United States are recommending that people wear cloth masks or face coverings and practice social distancing. Steps to follow in preventing the spread of COVID-19 include:

    • Avoid crowded public places and large or small gatherings.
    • Stay at least 6 feet from other people.
    • Always wear a face mask or cloth face cover when you will be around other people.
    • Work from home .
    • If possible, avoid public transportation and rideshares.

    If you have COVID-19 or have symptoms of it, you must isolate yourself at home and avoid contact with other people, both inside and outside your home, to avoid spreading the illness. This is called home isolation. Steps to follow in home isolation for COVD-19 include:

    For the most up-to-date news and information about COVID-19, you can visit the following websites:

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Coronavirus Disease 2019 .

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    Viral Vs Bacterial Pneumonia Symptoms

    Although viral and bacterial pneumonia symptoms can be very similar, there are some key differences between the two. The section below outlines some examples.

    • Lungs affected: Bacterial pneumonia tends to affect one particular part, or lobe, of a lung, whereas viral pneumonia typically affects both lungs.
    • Symptom onset: The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can develop either suddenly or gradually, whereas symptoms of viral pneumonia typically develop over several days.
    • Symptoms: People with bacterial pneumonia usually experience a higher temperature and a wet cough, whereas people with viral pneumonia

    When Would I Need To Be Hospitalized For Pneumonia

    If your case of pneumonia is more severe, you may need tostay in the hospital for treatment. Hospital treatments may include:

    • Oxygen
    • Fluids, antibiotics and other medicines given through an IV
    • Breathing treatments and exercises to help loosen mucus

    People most likely to be hospitalized are those who are most frail and/or at increased risk, including:

    • Babies and young children
    • People with weakened immune systems
    • People with health conditions that affect the heart and lungs

    It may take six to eight weeks to return to a normal level of functioning and well-being if youve been hospitalized with pneumonia.

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