Chest Pains And Palpitations
A rapid heartbeat and palpitations along with feelings of anxiety may be connected to a lack of oxygen in the blood.
A consistently rapid heart rate is not good for your heart or for the rest of your body. When theres a low level of oxygen in the blood, the heart works extra hard to compensate. This puts a lot of pressure on the heart, which can cause it to beat faster, irregularly, and experience pain.
Untreated anemia can exacerbate underlying cardiovascular issues. Extreme cases can lead to an enlarged heart, heart murmurs, or even heart failure.
Choosing The Right Antibiotic
Dozens of antibiotics are available for treating pneumonia, but selecting the best drug is sometimes difficult. People with pneumonia need an antibiotic that is effective against the organism causing the disease. When the organism is unknown, “empiric therapy” is given, meaning the doctor chooses which antibiotic is likely to work based on factors such as the person’s age, health, and severity of the illness.
In adults, the choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the severity of infection and site of care. In all cases, the more quickly antibiotic therapy is started once the diagnosis is made, the better the outcomes. In most cases, the organism causing the pneumonia will not be known before antibiotic therapy is started, so the doctor must choose an antibiotic regimen based on history and symptoms. Later, the therapy may be altered when more information becomes available. To determine the appropriate antibiotic, the doctor must first answer a number of questions:
Once an antibiotic has been chosen, there are still difficulties:
- Individuals respond differently to the same antibiotic, depending on their age, health, size, and other factors.
- People can be allergic to certain antibiotics, thus requiring alternatives.
- People may have strains of bacteria that are resistant to certain antibiotics.
Anemia And Infection: A Complex Relationship
Article notesCopyright and License informationDisclaimerCorresponding author:Copyright noticeAssociation between anemia and subclinical infection in children in Paraíba State, Brazilcited by
We read with great interest the article published in this issue of the Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia , as the relationship between anemia and infection is a complex one.
Let us see what is the current understanding for the most frequent cases in which anemia is associated with chronic infections or inflammatory diseases. In these cases anemia is linked to reticuloendothelial siderosis, and is usually mild or moderate. It is characterized by decreased serum iron with a decrease in the total iron binding capacity and percentage of transferrin saturation. Serum ferritin may be normal or increased. The differences in the laboratory tests for iron deficiency anemia are that, in the latter, the transferrin binding capacity rises, the ferritin is low and marrow iron is missing.
Although other mechanisms may be operating concurrently, depending on the underlying disease, the main one is impairment in the release of iron by the reticuloendothelial system. This happens, briefly, due to the increased concentration of hepcidin, a regulatory hormone produced by liver cells that rises with inflammation. Hepcidin induces the degradation of ferroportin, responsible for the transmembrane transfer of iron to plasma transferrin.
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How Is It Treated
Antibiotics are the usual treatment, because the organism may not be found. But if the pneumonia is caused by a virus, antivirals may be given. Sometimes, antibiotics may be used to prevent complications.
Antibiotics usually cure pneumonia caused by bacteria. Be sure to take the antibiotics exactly as instructed. Do not stop taking them just because you feel better. You need to take the full course of antibiotics.
Pneumonia can make you feel very sick. But after you take antibiotics, you should start to feel much better, although you will probably not be back to normal for several weeks. Call your doctor if you do not start to feel better after 2 to 3 days of antibiotics. Call your doctor right away if you feel worse.
There are things you can do to feel better during your treatment. Get plenty of rest and sleep, and drink lots of liquids. Do not smoke. If your cough keeps you awake at night, talk to your doctor about using cough medicine.
You may need to go to the hospital if you have bad symptoms, a weak immune system, or another serious illness.
What Are The Symptoms Of Pneumococcal Disease
Symptoms are not the same for everyone. They can be different from person to person. They can appear very suddenly and without warning. Depending on whether the infection causes pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis, you may have some combination of the following:
- Abrupt onset of fever
- Stiff neck
If you develop any of these symptoms, seek immediate medical help. Call 911 or go to the emergency room
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Clinical Definitions And Outcome Variables
We prospectively collected detailed baseline and sequential clinical and laboratory information using structured subject or proxy interviews, bedside assessments, and medical record abstraction. We obtained all hemoglobin values performed for clinical purposes from the medical record. The World Health Organization defines anemia as hemoglobin levels < 13 g/dL in men or < 12 g/dL in women . Because we wished to explore the prevalence and significance of anemia of varying degrees of severity, we classified anemia based on hemoglobin values into categories consisting of no anemia , at least borderline , at least mild , at least moderate , and severe anemia. The hemoglobin value obtained on day 1 was defined as the baseline “hemoglobin on presentation” value. The final hemoglobin measured in the hospital was the discharge value.
Evaluation Of Iron Deficiency Anemia As A Predisposing Factor In The Occurrence Of Pneumonia In Children
Iron deficiency anemia is a major health problem in young children. It may be associated with increased risk of pneumonia. The present study is a prospective one conducted during the period from February, 2014 until February, 2015. The study included 300 children divided into two equal groups according to presence or absence of pneumonia. For each child, a detailed history, clinical examination, chest x-ray and laboratory investigations , C-Reactive Protein , iron and serum ferritin) were performed. Compared to the control group, mothers of the study group lacked both high education and social class. However, there was a significant increase of ESR and WBCs in the study group compared to the control group and there was also a significant decrease of RBCs, hemoglobin, ferritin and iron in study group when compared to control group. Finally, there was a significant inverse correlation between iron from one side and each of ESR and WBCs from the other side. On the other hand, there was a positive significant correlation between iron and both RBCs, ferritin and hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia was significantly associated with pneumonia in children. Thus, early and accurate diagnosis of iron deficiency in children is of utmost importance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
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Does Anemia Of Inflammation Lead To Other Health Problems
Anemia of inflammation is typically mild or moderate, meaning that hemoglobin levels in your blood are lower than normal but not severely low. If your anemia becomes severe, the lack of oxygen in your blood can cause symptoms, such as feeling tired or short of breath. Severe anemia can become life-threatening.
In people who have CKD, severe anemia can increase the chance of developing heart problems.
Were Brittany Murphy And Simon Monjack Poisoned
Vicious rumors, spread by tabloids, unfairly smeared Brittanys reputation. My daughter was neither anorexic nor a drug junkie, as they repeatedly implied. … I will not rest until the truth about these tragic events is told. There will be justice for Brittany.
Ten of the heavy metals evaluated were detected at levels higher than the WHO high levels. Testing the hair strand sample identified as ‘back of the head’ we have detected ten heavy metals at levels above the WHO high levels recommendation. If we were to eliminate the possibility of a simultaneous accidental heavy metals exposure to the sample donor then the only logical explanation would be an exposure to these metals administered by a third party perpetrator with likely criminal intent.
Craig R. Harvey
“The Los Angeles County Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner has no plans to reopen our inquiry into the deaths. We stand by our original reports. We have not been presented any party lab test results for analysis, so we are unable to comment on publicized reports of private lab tests.”
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The Most Common Causes Of Anemia In Aging Adults
Whenever anemia is detected, its essential to figure out what is causing the low red blood cell count.
Compared to most cells in the body, normal red blood cells have a short lifespan: about 100-120 days. So a healthy body must always be producing red blood cells. This is done in the bone marrow and takes about seven days, then the new red blood cells work in the blood for 3-4 months. Once the red blood cell dies, the body recovers the iron and reuses it to create new red blood cells.
Anemia happens when something goes wrong with these normal processes. In kids and younger adults, there is usually one cause for anemia. But in older adults, its quite common for there to be several co-existing causes of anemia.
A useful way to think about anemia is by considering two categories of causes:
- A problem producing the red blood cells, and/or
- A problem losing red blood cells
Here are the most common causes of low hemoglobin for each category:
Problems producing red blood cells. These includes problems related to the bone marrow and deficiencies in vitamins and other substances used to make red blood cells. Common specific causes include:
Problems losing red blood cells. Blood loss causes anemia because red blood cells are leaving the blood stream. This can happen quickly and obviously, but also can happen slowly and subtly. Slow bleeds can worsen anemia by causing an iron-deficiency, as noted above. Some examples of how people lose blood include:
Do Children Need Protection Against Pneumococcal Disease
Yes. Infants and young children in the United States need to be protected against pneumococcal disease. In fact, they are routinely vaccinated for pneumococcal disease because it is part of the standard infant immunization schedule. Pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended for older children and adolescents with kidney disease, kidney failure, or an organ transplant, even if they received the vaccine as infants. If your child hasn’t been vaccinated, talk to your doctor.
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Symptoms Of Anemia You Shouldnt Ignore
Anemia is a common blood disorder affecting more than 1.6 billion people worldwide. It occurs when the number of healthy red blood cells that carry oxygen through the body drops to an abnormal level, or if the cells dont contain enough hemoglobin.
The majority of the approximately 3.5 million Americans with anemia become anemic over time through inadequate iron or low vitamin B-12 levels . Both of these, along with folate , is necessary for the production of healthy red blood cells.
Those who are most susceptible to anemia are children, females with menorrhagia , and pregnant women. People who suffer chronic diseases like ulcers, or people who have recently undergone surgery, may also become anemic. People with African ancestry are especially susceptible to sickle cell anemia, in which the red blood cells are curved like sickles.
Avoiding Common Pitfalls Related To Anemia And Iron
A very common diagnosis in older adults is iron-deficiency anemia. If you are diagnosed with this type of anemia, be sure the doctors have checked a ferritin level or otherwise confirmed you are low on iron.
I have actually reviewed medical charts in which a patient was prescribed iron for anemia, but no actual low iron level was documented. This suggests that the clinician may have presumed the anemia was due to low iron.
However, although iron deficiency is common, its important that clinicians and patients confirm this is the cause, before moving on to treatment with iron supplements. Doctors should also assess for other causes of anemia, since its very common for older adults to simultaneously experience multiple causes of anemia .
If an iron deficiency is confirmed, be sure the doctors have tried to check for any causes of slow blood loss.
It is common for older adults to develop microscopic bleeds in their stomach or colon, especially if they take a daily aspirin or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen.
Bear in mind that iron supplements are often quite constipating for older adults. So you only want to take them if an iron-deficiency anemia has been confirmed, and you want to make sure any causes of ongoing blood loss have been addressed.
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What Are Clinical Trials For Anemia Of Inflammation
Clinical trialsand other types of clinical studiesare part of medical research and involve people like you. When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help doctors and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future.
Researchers are studying many aspects of anemia of inflammation, including new treatments for this condition.
Why Do I Need To Know About Anemia And Copd
Anemia is especially serious if you have COPD because you may not be able to inhale adequate amounts of oxygen and exhale excess carbon dioxide well because of your illness. You may be anemic without knowing it.
Common signs of anemia may include:
- Weakness and fatigue
- Confusion or impaired ability to remember and think clearly
- Difficulty swallowing
- Frequent headaches
Anemia can make breathing harder and tires your muscles. Your ability to tolerate activities of daily life, such as walking and exercising, may diminish if you are anemic.
If you have symptoms of anemia, notify your health care provider. Your doctor can determine if you are anemic by performing blood tests.
It is likely that your doctor tests for anemia at least once each year. Common tests for anemia include a complete blood cell count hemoglobin and hematocrit .
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How Do You Get Pneumonia
You may get pneumonia:
- After you breathe infected air particles into your lungs.
- After you breathe certain bacteria from your nose and throat into your lungs.
- During or after a viral upper respiratory infection, such as a cold or influenza .
- As a complication of a viral illness, such as measles or chickenpox.
- If you breathe large amounts of food, gastric juices from the stomach, or vomit into the lungs . This can happen when you have had a medical condition that affects your ability to swallow, such as a seizure or a stroke.
A healthy person’s nose and throat often contain bacteria or viruses that cause pneumonia. Pneumonia can develop when these organisms spread to your lungs while your lungs are more likely to be infected. Examples of times when this can happen are during or soon after a cold or if you have a long-term illness, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .
You can get pneumonia in your daily life, such as at school or work or when you are in a hospital or nursing home . Treatment may differ in healthcare-associated pneumonia, because bacteria causing the infection in hospitals may be different from those causing it in the community. This topic focuses on community-associated pneumonia.
Occupational And Regional Pneumonias
Exposure to chemicals can also cause inflammation and pneumonia. Where you work and live can put you at higher risk for exposure to pneumonia-causing organisms.
- Workers exposed to cattle, pigs, sheep, and horses are at risk for pneumonia caused by anthrax, brucella, and Coxiella burnetii .
Inhalation or respiratory anthrax is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by inhaling the spores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Although the spores are dormant when breathed in, they germinate when exposed to a warm, moist environment, such as the lungs. Not all particles are small enough to pass into the alveoli, or air sacs, but those that do begin to multiply and may spread to the lymphatic system. When the spores germinate, several toxins are released. Particles illustrated are not to scale.
- Agricultural and construction workers in the Southwest are at risk for coccidioidomycosis . The disease is caused by the spores of the fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidiodes posadasii.
- Those working in Ohio and the Mississippi Valley are at risk for histoplasmosis, a lung disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. This fungus grows well in areas enriched with bird or bat droppings.
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What Causes Anemia Of Inflammation
Experts think that when you have an infection or disease that causes inflammation, your immune system causes changes in how your body works that may lead to anemia of inflammation.
- Your body may not store and use iron normally.
- Your kidneys may produce less erythropoietin , a hormone that signals your bone marrowthe spongy tissue inside most of your bonesto make red blood cells.
- Your bone marrow may not respond normally to EPO, making fewer red blood cells than needed.
- Your red blood cells may live for a shorter time than normal, causing them to die faster than they can be replaced.