Wednesday, March 22, 2023

Time Between Flu And Pneumonia Shot

Safety Measures For Getting The Flu Jab And/or Pneumococcal Vaccination

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Your GP and doctors assistants will ensure that everyone can maintain physical distance during the flu vaccination clinic. They will also ask whether people have symptoms that could indicate COVID-19. If someone has possible COVID-19 symptoms, they can get the flu jab and/or pneumococcal vaccination at a later time. It is possible that you will have to get the flu jab and/or pneumococcal vaccination at a different location, for example in a sports hall. Only the care provider who gives you the injection will approach within 1.5 metres. For that reason, the person vaccinating you will wear a surgical mask that covers the mouth and nose.

You can get the flu jab safely by following the coronavirus measures.

If you had the flu jab and/or pneumococcal vaccination first, then you should wait at least 1 week before getting the COVID-19 vaccination. If you got the COVID-19 vaccination first, then you should wait at least 2 weeks before getting the flu jab and/or pneumococcal vaccination. This waiting period is in case you experience any side-effects.

Antigenic Drift And Seasonal Influenza

The surface antigens of influenza A and influenza B viruses change often. The changes involve stepwise mutations of genes coding for H and N glycoproteins. This results in cumulative changes in influenza antigens, called antigenic drift. Antigenic drift is responsible for the annual outbreaks and epidemics of influenza. The composition of influenza vaccines needs to be reviewed every year because of antigenic drift.

When To See A Doctor

A person who is over 65 years of age should talk to their doctor about which pneumonia vaccine may be best for them. The doctor can help determine whether they should get the vaccination, which vaccination to get, and when to get it.

Parents and caregivers of young children should talk to a pediatrician about the schedule for the pneumonia vaccination. The pediatrician can also address any questions or concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccination.

A person does not need to see a doctor for mild reactions to the vaccine, such as tenderness at the injection site, fever, or fatigue.

However, if a person experiences any life threatening side effects, they should seek emergency help immediately.

Signs and symptoms of allergic reactions in children may include:

  • respiratory distress, such as wheezing

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Influenza And Pneumonia Vaccination For Adult Patients Undergoing Treatment For Cancer

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The Influenza Vaccine

The flu vaccine is aimed at protecting people who are most at risk from catching or spreading flu. As the strain of flu virus changes every year this means it is necessary to have the flu vaccine annually during the autumn or early winter. There are 2 different types of influenza vaccine recommended this year for adults by the Department of Health, both of which are inactivated vaccines . For those under the age of 65 the Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine is recommended. For those over the age of 65 the Adjuvanted Trivalent Influenza Vaccine is recommended.

Should people who are having cancer treatment have a flu vaccine?

Yes. The Department of Health and Cancer Research UK recommend vaccination for people who are immunosuppressed because of disease or treatment. It is especially important this year, during the COVID-19 pandemic to have a flu vaccine. It is essential to be protected from flu as those who develop both flu and COVID together tend to be more unwell and are more likely to need to be admitted to hospital. If you are having, or have recently finished, cancer treatment you should ask about the vaccine.

Can the flu vaccines actually cause flu?

No. Most types of flu vaccination do not contain any live virus, so they cannot cause flu. However, you should not have the intra-nasal flu vaccine as this does contain live flu virus.

Patients on Immunotherapy

Pneumococcal Diseases & Pneumonia Shots

COVIDView Summary ending on April 4, 2020

There is a category of diseases called pneumococcal disease, of which pneumonia is one of the most dangerousthe other most dangerous being meningitis. People with diabetes are about three times more likely to die with flu and pneumococcal diseases, yet most dont get a simple, safe pneumonia shot.

Symptoms of pneumonia include:

Cough that can produce mucus that is gray, yellow, or streaked with blood Chest pain

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General Characteristics Of The Study Population

demonstrates the demographic and baseline characteristics of both cohorts . FluVac+ patients were significantly older than those who were not vaccinated within the season and off season. Corresponding to the higher age and the existing recommendations for influenza vaccination, FluVac+ patients were more likely to have comorbid illnesses, such as congestive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, neoplastic disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, and were more frequently users of long-term oxygen therapy. These patients had a higher BMI, were less likely to be smokers and were more frequently vaccinated against pneumococci. No differences were found with respect to the occurrence of previous antibiotic treatment or nursing home residence status. Approximately 63.3% of patients in the season cohort and 65.1% in the off-season cohort were hospitalised for their CAP episode. The hospitalisation rate of FluVac+ patients was comparable to the unvaccinated patients for the season and off-season cohort . The remaining patients were treated on an outpatient basis by their physician.

When mortality was investigated as an outcome parameter in the season cohort by multivariate analyses , influenza vaccination revealed no decreased risks for mortality on day 14 or 30 after adjustment for potential confounders. However, with respect to the 6-month long-term follow-up, influenza vaccination was associated with lower mortality risk .

Adverse Events After Cell

Cell-based influenza vaccines have a similar safety profile to standard influenza vaccines. In one study among children and adolescents aged 417 years, injection site reactions were reported in 53% of people receiving cell-based vaccine compared with 43% receiving standard influenza vaccine. Systemic reactions were reported by 37% and 30%, respectively.83 Both injection site and systemic reactions were typically mild to moderate < 1% were reported as severe.

In another study in adults aged 1860 years, injection site reactions were reported in 29% of people receiving cell-based vaccine compared with 25% receiving standard influenza vaccine. Systemic reactions were reported by 25% and 23%, respectively.84 Injection site reactions were typically mild to moderate < 1% were reported as severe. No severe systemic reactions were reported.

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Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Like most vaccines, the childhood and adult versions of the pneumococcal vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects.

These include:

  • redness where the injection was given
  • hardness or swelling where the injection was given

There are no serious side effects listed for either the childhood or adult versions of the vaccine, apart from an extremely rare risk of a severe allergic reaction .

Who Should Be Immunised Against Flu

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Immunisation for the flu is recommended for everyone aged 6 months and over.

Some people are more at risk of complications from influenza and are eligible for free vaccination.

People with an underlying medical condition or reduced immunity are most at risk and should be immunised against influenza. They include:

  • anyone aged 65 years and older
  • pregnant women
  • all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged from 6 months and over
  • people 6 months or older with:
  • people who are obese
  • people who are addicted to alcohol
  • people who are homeless
  • residents in nursing homes or other long-term care facilities
  • people involved in the commercial poultry and pig industry
  • people who provide essential community services
  • anyone visiting parts of the world where influenza is circulating, especially if travelling in a group.
  • Some workplaces run annual immunisation programs for staff.

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    People Are Also Reading

    You no longer need to wait 14 days between vaccinations, its website states. Experience with other vaccines has shown that the way our bodies develop protection, known as an immune response, after getting vaccinated and possible side effects of vaccines are generally the same when given alone or with other vaccines.

    The CDC does suggest that those getting two shots at once get them in separate limbs, if possible.

    The CDC also recommends people get the flu vaccine by the end of October. Those who get vaccinated too early, particularly older adults, may have reduced protection against flu infection later in the season, the CDC states.

    As COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations and deaths continue to rise across the Fredericksburg area, state and nation, some pharmacies, such as Walgreens, are preparing for the co-circulation of both viruses, according to a press release. This years flu season coincides with the return to many in-person school, work, travel and social activities.

    One Virginia school system already has experienced the two-at-once phenomenon. Rappahannock County, a rural locality with about 850 students in two schools, returned to virtual learning after numerous cases of both infections, according to school officials.

    The death of one child from the flu was reported to the CDC during last years influenza season. The year before, deaths of 199 children were reported, according to the CDC.

    Who Can Get The Flu Vaccine

    An annual flu vaccination is provided through the National Immunisation Program for most people in the community who are at an increased risk of serious complications.

    In Victoria, an annual vaccination against influenza is free for:

    • children aged 6 months to less than 5 years
    • people who have medical conditions that put them at risk of serious complications of influenza
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 6 months and over
    • pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy
    • people 65 years and over.

    Contact your doctor or immunisation provider for further information about eligibility. People not covered by these categories can also have an annual flu immunisation, but it is not available for free.

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    What Are The Common Vaccine Side Effects And Risks

    • Flu vaccines are safe, but some side effects can occur.
    • Minor problems following the flu vaccine include soreness, redness, and / or swelling from the shot, hoarseness, sore, red or itchy eyes, cough, fever, aches, headache, itching, and fatigue.
    • More serious problems may include Guillain-Barre’ syndrome in fewer than 1 or 2 cases per one million people vaccinated, children receiving multiple vaccines slightly increase in fever with seizure.
    • People who should not get the flu vaccine include anyone with severe, life threatening allergies, had GBS before, or not feeling well the day of vaccination.

    Adverse Events After Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine

    Asked and Answered â COVID

    Clinical trials show a higher rate of injection site reactions in adults aged 65 years after receiving the adjuvanted influenza vaccine, compared with standard influenza vaccines.

    Around 30% of people who received Fluad reported injection site reactions, compared with around 20% of people who received standard influenza vaccine. Both groups reported similar rates of systemic reactions.76 Overall, a similar proportion of people vaccinated with Fluad Quad experience injection site and systemic reactions as those vaccinated with Fluad.77

    Rates of severe or serious adverse events do not increase after receiving the adjuvanted vaccine. This has been shown in clinical trials and post-licensure surveillance studies.76-79

    Adjuvanted influenza vaccine is only registered for use in people aged 65 years. This vaccine is not recommended in younger people. However, clinical trials in some younger populations and post-licensure safety data after an adjuvanted vaccine was inadvertently given to younger people suggest a similar safety profile to that seen in people aged 65 years.80-82

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    Will Being Vaccinated Against Flu Pneumonia And Shingles Help Prevent Covid

    The short answer is no. But reducing your risk for getting sick with the flu, pneumonia, or shingles which is what these vaccines do makes a lot of sense during the pandemic, Privor-Dumm says.

    Lowering your risk for vaccine-preventable diseases will help you avoid doctors offices and hospitals, which will reduce any potential exposure to the coronavirus, Privor-Dumm adds.

    Plus, Privor-Dumm says, Preventing serious disease can help keep you out of the hospital at a time when health resources may be needed to treat COVID-19 patients.

    Antigenic Shift And Pandemic Influenza

    Antigenic shift is a dramatic change in the H antigen of influenza A. This occurs unpredictably and infrequently.98Antigenic shift gives rise to pandemic influenza subtypes by 1 of 2 ways:

    • an avian or other animal virus directly adapts so that it can infect humans
    • an avian or other animal virus mixes with a human virus, called genetic reassortment

    There have been 4 influenza pandemics in the 20th and 21st centuries:

    • 1918
    • 1968
    • 2009

    Each of these pandemic strains replaced the previously circulating influenza A subtype and went on to circulate as seasonal influenza.

    More recently, various avian influenza A virus subtypes have caused human infections. Examples are H5N1, H7N9 and H9N2. Sustained human-to-human transmission of these subtypes has not been reported.101,102

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    All People Aged 6 Months

    Registered for use in people aged 6 months.

    Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

    Each 0.5 mL monodose pre-filled syringe contains:

    • 15 µg haemagglutinin of each of the 4 recommended influenza virus strains
    • 0.05 µg ovalbumin

    Registered for use in people aged 6 months.

    Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

    Each 0.5 mL monodose pre-filled syringe contains:

    • 15 µg haemagglutinin of each of the 4 recommended influenza virus strains
    • 100 µg formaldehyde

    Registered for use in people aged 6 months.

    Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

    Each 0.5 mL monodose pre-filled syringe contains:

    • 15 µg haemagglutinin of each of the 4 recommended influenza virus strains

    Also contains traces of:

    Registered for use in people aged 3 years.

    Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

    Each 0.5 mL monodose pre-filled syringe contains:

    • 15 µg haemagglutinin of each of the 4 recommended influenza virus strains
    • 100 ng ovalbumin

    Registered for use in people aged 5 years.

    Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

    Each 0.5 mL monodose pre-filled syringe contains:

    • 15 µg haemagglutinin of each of the 4 recommended influenza virus strains
    • < 1 µg ovalbumin

    Registered for use in people aged 9 years.

    Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

    Each 0.5 mL monodose pre-filled syringe contains:

    • 15 µg haemagglutinin of each of the 4 recommended influenza virus strains

    May contain traces of:

    Registered for use in people aged 65 years.

    Adjuvanted quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

    What Does Your Doctor Say

    Infectious disease doctor: Flu or pneumonia vaccine can help in fight against coronavirus

    Seeing tons of patients gives doctors a knack for knowing which disease is which. Sometimes patients come in and they just look like the flu, says Dr. Brownthe air of misery, along with the runny nose, is a giveaway even before she asks about symptoms.

    Doctors also use diagnostic tools. Listening to the lungs or taking a chest X-ray can reveal signs of pneumonia.

    There is a nasal swab test that can determine if you have the actual flu virus, says Dr. Scott.

    When it comes to viruseseither viral pneumonia or the flutheres not much doctors can do to help, with one big exception. If you have the flu, and get to the doctor right after you notice your symptoms, your doctor may prescribe an antiviral medicationlike Tamifluto lessen the course and severity of symptoms, says Dr. Scott.

    The catch? Antivirals are only effective if you use them ASAPwithin one to two days of the onset of symptoms. And taking Tamiflu isnt necessarily a pleasant experience side effects can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness. The side effects may be worse than your actual flu symptoms! says Dr. Brown.

    Even if you miss the window for antivirals, its still worth it to get a diagnosis, says Dr. Scott. A doctors visit is an opportunity to rule out complications of the flu or the possibility you have another disease , he says. And, if you have vulnerable members in your homelike an elderly person, for instancethey might want to take Tamiflu as a preventive measure, he says.

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    How The Flu Vaccine Works

    The flu viruses change every year because the influenza virus has a unique ability to change its surface structure. This means that even if you had influenza or an immunisation one year, your bodys immune system might be unable to fight the changed version of the virus that will be circulating the following year.

    Each year, a new vaccine is developed and is available for those who wish to be immunised. The seasonal flu vaccine includes protection against four strains of influenza.

    Recent evidence suggests optimal protection against the flu occurs within the first 3-4 months following vaccination.

    Mixing And Matching Covid

    This is different from getting multiple vaccines in the same sitting. If you are in a location and can get your third shot or COVID-19 booster, and the type you received for your first two shots in the series is not available, its reasonable to receive the other type as a booster, Dr. Sobhanie says.

    This only applies to the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, however.

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    Annual Vaccination Is Recommended

    Annual vaccination before the onset of each flu season is recommended. In most parts of Australia, this occurs from June to September.

    Immunisation from April provides protection before the peak season. While the flu continues to circulate, it is never too late to vaccinate.

    The flu vaccine cannot give you influenza because it does not contain live virus. Some people may still contract the flu because the vaccine may not always protect against all strains of the flu virus circulating in the community.

    Common Senseand Vaccinationsare The Best Prevention Tactics

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    The flu is one of the viruses that can cause pneumonia, says Dr. Lovell. Heres why: All of those secretions from your stuffy nose, combined with the dehydration that often accompanies the flu, create an environment where bacteria can multiply too fast for your body to defeat, potentially leading to bacterial pneumonia, explains Dr. Scott.

    If you didnt get a flu shot yet, head to the doctors office or pharmacy stat. Vaccinations for both the flu and pneumonia save lives and decrease hospitalizations, says Dr. Lovell.

    For healthy people, a flu shot reduces your chances of getting the flu, says Dr. Scott. And while its still possible to get the flu even after a vaccination, the shot will lessen both symptoms and how long the flu lingers, Dr. Scott says. Vaccines can also help prevent the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, says Dr. Lovell.

    Along with getting vaccinated, consider having a hands-off policy during this germ-heavy season, avoiding hugs and handshakes, says Dr. Scott, and wash your hands frequently . This will help you avoid getting sick. Wipe down potentially germ-covered surfaces at home and work, says Dr. Brown. And, adds Dr. Lovell: Drink lots of water and maintain good nutrition.

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