Tuesday, March 28, 2023

Small Cell Lung Cancer And Pneumonia

Predictors Of Mortality In Lung Cancer Patients With Covid

Understanding Small Cell Lung Cancer

The case fatality rate in our series was 35% , and was higher in patients actively receiving anti-cancer treatment compared to those that not . We aimed to analyze predictive factors of mortality based on baseline clinic-pathologic features, COVID-19 clinical presentation, and cancer treatment. Univariate analysis demonstrated a statistically significant association with mortality for oxygen saturation at diagnosis, ECOG performance status, number of comorbidities, stage IV, number of metastatic sites, progressive disease, and elevated CRP and fibrinogen . However, there was strong correlation among multiple variables and none of the predictive factors identified in the univariate analysis remained statistically significant in a multivariate model.

Table 4. Predictive factors of mortality for COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer by logistic regression .

Figure 4. Map of correlations among variables associated with the outcome of death by COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer. Positive correlations are displayed in blue and negative correlations in red color. Color intensity and the size of the circle are proportional to the correlation coefficients. Correlation coefficient is indicated in the scale on the right. ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale of performance status SpO2, oxygen saturation at admission CRP, c-reactive protein.

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Anyone Out There Living With Stage 4 Lung Cancer

Is anyone living with stg4 lung cancer? How are they doing?

Welcome to Mayo Connect. Yes, we have a lung cancer group. I am the mentor for lung cancer and health. I do have stage 4 lung cancer. Many people in the lung cancer group do. Iâm horrible on my cell phone otherwise Iâd put the link here. You can access it the same way you found this group.Why are you interested in stage 4 lung cancer patients? Have you been diagnosed with it?

Yes i have been diagnosed. I have had 2 rounds of chemo, and Iâm wiped out. No appetite for food. Any suggestions?

Yes i have been diagnosed. I have had 2 rounds of chemo, and Iâm wiped out. No appetite for food. Any suggestions?

having cancer sucks and so does chemo. I drank tons of water to help get the chemicals out of my system. One of the chemicals that I had was cisplatin and that absolutely killed my appetite. I was also wiped out.I forced myself to eat, small helpings of at least some protein. I also could handle pastries and the like.Believe it or not exercising will help with energy.What type of lung cancer do you have? Did you have any surgery?Do you have family at home to help you?

Hi , Iâd like to add my welcome. Youâll notice that I modified the title of your discussion and moved it to the Lung Cancer group here:

Early Warning Signs And Symptoms Of Lung Cancer

Most lung cancers don’t cause symptoms until the disease has advanced, in part because the lungs have few nerve endings. When lung cancer does cause signs in its early stages, they may vary from person to person but lung cancer symptoms commonly include:

  • A new cough that is persistent or worsens, or a change in an existing chronic cough
  • Cough that produces blood

Less common symptoms of lung cancer may include:

  • Swelling in the face or neck
  • Difficulty swallowing or pain while swallowing
  • Changes in the appearance of fingers, called finger clubbing

Although most of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than lung cancer, it’s important to see a doctor. Discovering lung cancer early may mean more treatment options are available.

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Keep Up With Vaccinations

Certain vaccines are highly recommended for people with lung cancer. However, before you receive any vaccines, speak with your oncology care team. Some vaccines may be more harmful than helpful. A discussion with an oncologist about the risks and benefits of all vaccines needs to be clearly understood.

A few of the most common vaccines that can help prevent pneumonia with lung cancer are listed below.

COVID-19 Vaccines

These vaccines are generally recommended for people with any type of cancer to prevent infection with COVID-19. Keep in mind, discussion with a health care professional is crucial before making a decision. These vaccines may be less effective for individuals during chemotherapy, radiation , and other cancer treatments.

Flu Vaccine

Its unknown whether people with lung cancer and lung cancer survivors are more likely to catch the flu than other individuals. What is known, however, is that people with cancer have an increased risk of developing complications if they get the flu. These complications may be serious, so doctors usually advise people with cancer to receive this vaccine.

Pneumonia Vaccine

The pneumonia vaccine helps fight off certain bacterial infections, making them particularly helpful for individuals with weakened immune systems. One or more shots of this vaccine may be needed, depending on the doctors recommendation.

What Should I Expect In The Last Few Days


As the end of life approaches, you might experience a number of physical and emotional changes. These are different for everyone. You might notice changes over weeks, days or even hours. Some of the changes might be the same as signs of a flare-up, so discuss them with your doctor or nurse.

Signs to look out for include:

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How Do I Know If I Have Lung Cancer

Often the symptoms of lung cancer do not appear until the disease is in an advanced stage. As the cancer develops, you may experience:

  • problems breathing
  • chest pain, especially when you breathe deeply or cough
  • coughing up blood
  • chest infections that are frequent and wont go away
  • fatigue
  • unexplained weight loss and loss of appetite .

Many of these symptoms can be explained by reasons other than having cancer. You should see your doctor if any of these symptoms are prevalent and do not go away.

Routine screening for lung cancer is not recommended unless you have:

  • any of the symptoms listed above
  • a family history of cancer
  • other risk factors

If you have some of the symptoms listed above, your doctor will want to do a physical examination. The doctor may then want you to have:

  • a chest x-ray
  • an analysis of phlegm
  • a biopsy
  • a bronchoscopy
  • a CT scan

Clinical Presentation Of Covid

All lung cancer patients had at least 1 COVID-19 related symptom cough , shortness of breath , fever , and low-grade fever were the most commonly reported COVID-19 symptoms . Time from symptoms onset to first positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR was 5.5 days . Most cases were confirmed at first SARS-CoV-2 PCR, however in 2 cases a second PCR was required to confirm diagnosis.

Table 2. Clinical Presentation of COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer .

Temperature at diagnosis was above 38°C in 8 patients , between 37.0°C and 38°C in 9 patients , and below 37°C in 6 patients . Oxygen saturation at the time of diagnosis was above 95% in 8 patients , between 90 and 95% in 6 patients , and below 90% in 8 patients . Main lab test abnormalities found were low lymphocytes count , low hemoglobin, high NLR , and elevated inflammatory markers: fibrinogen , D-dimer , CRP , and ferritin . To further evaluate the predictive value of NLR based on a dichotomous classification, we conducted ROC curve analysis. With an area under the curve of 0.804, the value that maximized the Youdenâs index was 10.690. The specificity and sensitivity for this value was 0.857 and 0.750, respectively .

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How Is Small Cell Lung Cancer Diagnosed

Chest X-rays are typically the first step to screen for any type of lung cancer. If images show suspicious spots on a lung, your healthcare provider may order one or more of these diagnostic tests:

  • Imaging scans:Computed tomography and positron emission tomography scans detect lung tumors. These tests also can help gauge cancer spread. CT scans are the primary way to diagnose lung cancer.
  • Sputum cytology: This test checks for cancer cells in sputum, mucus coughed up from the lungs.
  • Biopsy: A needle biopsy removes tissue samples from the lungs. Lab pathologists check the biopsy for cancer cells.
  • Bronchoscopy: Using a bronchoscope, your provider looks inside the lungs airways for tumors. At the same time, providers can remove tissue samples to biopsy.

A Misdiagnosis Of Pneumonia

Improving Survival in Lung Cancer

When I first read that Edward Aschoff had died of pneumonia on Christmas Eve, I felt very triggered. Recent memories came flooding back to my 3-month hospitalization and doctors trying to figure out what was making me so sick. From tuberculosis to sarcoidosis, doctors ran a shopping list of possible maladies until they agreed that I had a rare form of pneumonia called lipoid pneumonia where oil deposits are lodged into my lungs.

The fact that I had spent almost 20 years passionately making oil-based natural cosmetic products fueled this diagnosis even more. They told me to stop making products immediately and avoid contact with all oils . Feeling extremely guilty for thinking that my passion had physically made me sick, I did as I was told and avoided oils like the plague.

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Small Cell Lung Cancer

Small cell lung cancer grows and spreads rapidly, and in most cases, is diagnosed in heavy smokers. This type has been staged into:

  • Stage 1: Here, only the underlying tissues of the lung are invaded by the cancer cells.
  • Stage 2: Here the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes surrounding the lung tissues. The cancer cells also invade the chest wall, or nearby structures in this stage.
  • Stage 3: This stage can be further divided into stage 3A and 3B . In 3A the cancer takes over the lymph nodes that are in the center of the chest. And in stage 3B, the disease invades the lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest, or in the lower neck, together with the heart, blood vessels, trachea and esophagus.
  • Stage 4: Stage 4 is the final stage of the cancer. Here the disease spreads to other parts of the body. In clinical terms, the cancer has metastasized.

Dealing With Your Emotions

If you have been recently diagnosed with lung cancer, you may feel denial, anger, and grief. Reactions vary from person to person. Talk to your doctor about steps you can take to help with your emotional reactions.

If you are having a hard time moving forward with your life, talk with your doctor. Your cancer treatment centre may offer counselling services. You may also contact your local chapter of the Canadian Cancer Society to help you find a support group.

Having cancer can change your life in many ways. For support in managing these changes, see the topic Getting Support When You Have Cancer.

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Lung Cancer Symptoms In Women And Men

Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer diagnosed in both men and women , according to the American Cancer Society . Only prostate cancer is more common for men, and breast cancer is more common for women.

However, lung cancer is the No. 1 cause of cancer death for both genders by far compared with other cancers. Below is a look at the statistics.

  • About 119,100 men and 116,660 women are expected to be diagnosed with lung cancer in 2021, according to the ACS, with an estimated 69,410 deaths among men and 62,470 among women.
  • The number of men diagnosed with lung cancer has decreased in the past four-plus decades, according to the American Lung Association. Diagnosis rates among women were on the rise during the same time period but have started to decline.
  • Women tend to be diagnosed at an earlier age than men.
  • Women who develop lung cancer before menopause are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced disease.

External Beam Radiotherapy For Airway Obstruction

HE staining of cancer tissue and non

Patients with advanced lung cancer, airway obstruction and poor performance status might not be suitable candidates for more invasive interventions. When immediate management of the airway is required, EBRT can be considered an alternative . Lee et al. evaluated the response to EBRT in 95 patients with obstructed airways due to different types of lung cancer. Not only did they find that EBRT was effective in resolving airway obstruction , but they also described a significant increase in 1-year survival rate in these patients. The type of tumor did not affect response to treatment but response was significantly better in tumors < 6 cm . Application of local radiotherapy for 10â12 days at doses of 30â40 Gy have resulted in palliation of lung mass symptoms, including relief of obstruction. When compared to endobronchial brachytherapy, ERBT showed better outcomes .

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Nivolumab For Advanced Non

Administering nivolumab may challenge NSCLC patients with IIP.

We performed a multicenter phase-II trial to assess nivolumabs efficacy and safety.

The 6 months PFS rate was 56%, indicating a positive trial.

Two patients developed mild pneumonitis .

Nivolumab could be an effective treatment for NSCLC patients with mild IIP.

Common Lung Cancer Symptoms

Often, when patients receive a lung cancer diagnosis, they have been experiencing symptoms such as persistent breathing difficulty, recurring respiratory infections or chest pain for a while. But the patient likely didnt realize these were symptoms of lung cancer, so they waited to see a doctor.

While every cough or case of bronchitis isnt a reason to believe you have lung cancer, if you are at high risk of developing lung cancer, paying attention to the early warning signs is critical, saysRussell Hales, M.D., a board-certified radiation oncologist and director of the multidisciplinary clinic at The Lung Cancer Program at the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Common lung cancer symptoms include:

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How Is Lung Cancer Diagnosed

Your symptoms and your medical historyespecially if you have any history of cancer in your familywill help your doctor decide how likely it is that you have lung cancer and whether you need tests to be sure.

Lung cancer is usually first found on a chest X-ray or a CT scan. More tests are done to find out what kind of cancer cells you have and whether they have spread beyond your lung. These tests help your doctor and you find out what stage the cancer is in. The stage is a rating to measure how big the cancer is and how far it has spread.

How Can I Detect Small Cell Lung Cancer Sooner

OPDIVO for Small Cell Lung Cancer

Regular low-dose CT scans can help detect lung cancer early, before it has a chance to spread. Radiation exposure, including during screening tests, is a concern if youre at high risk for lung cancer. Low-dose CT scanners use about five times less radiation than traditional CT scanners. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends yearly lung cancer screenings using low-dose CT scans for those who meet all of these criteria:

  • Heavy smoker .
  • Current or former smoker .
  • Between the ages of 55 and 70.

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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Small Cell Lung Cancer

Lung cancer claims the lives of more Americans every year than any other cancer. Symptoms often dont appear until the cancer spreads. Once small cell lung cancer advances, its treatable but not curable. Detecting the cancer early through regular cancer screenings offers the best chance for improved survival. The overall five-year survival rate for people with limited-stage small cell lung cancer is about 20%. That number drops to 3% for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer.

What Increases Your Risk

A risk factor for lung cancer is something that increases your chance of getting this cancer. Having one or more of these risk factors can make it more likely that you will get lung cancer. But it doesn’t mean that you will definitely get it. And many people who get lung cancer don’t have any of these risk factors.

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What Is A Small Cell Lung Cancer

Small cell lung cancers are more dangerous and the rapidly-spreading variant. These small cell lung cancers are different from NSCLC and offer different small cell lung cancer symptoms.

The cells in the small cell lung cancers are so small that they are often called the oat cell cancer disease. The cancer cells in small cell lung cancer grow tremendously quickly but these small cell lung cancers can be treated with procedures of radiation and chemotherapy. The only problem is, the cancers can return quickly too.

Cancer Symptoms Stage 4 Cancer And Pneumonia

Postobstructive pneumonia in lung cancer

What Are Symptoms and Signs?

A symptom is an indication of disease, illness, trauma, or that something is not right in their own bodies. Symptoms are felt or noticed by person or persons, but may not readily be noticed by anyone else. For example, chills, weakness, achiness, shortness of breath, and a cough are possible symptoms of pneumonia.

A sign is also an indication that something is not right in the body. But signs are defined as observations made by a doctor, harbour, or other health professionals. Fever, rapid breathing proportion, and abnormal breathing reverberates heard through a stethoscope are possible clues of pneumonia.

The presence of one evidence or sign were not able to yield enough information to suggest a begin. For example, a rash in a child could be a symptom of a number of things including lethal ivy, an infectious disease like measles, an infection limited to the skin, or a food reaction. But if the rash is heard along with other indicates and indications like a high fever, chills, achiness, and a absces throat, then a doctor can get a better picture of the illness. In many cases, a patients signeds and indications is not supply enough clues by themselves to determine the cause of an illness, and medical research such as x-rays, blood tests, or a biopsy may be needed.

How Does Cancer Produce Signs and Symptoms?

How Are Signs and Symptoms Helpful?

General Cancer Signs and Symptoms

Specific Cancer Signs and Symptoms

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