National Immunisation Program Pneumococcal Vaccination Schedule From 1 July 2020 Clinical Advice For Vaccination Providers
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This fact sheet provides clinical advice for vaccination providers on pneumococcal vaccination from 1 July 2020.
It includes information on key changes to the pneumococcal vaccination schedule on the NIP to reflect the current best clinical evidence in preventing pneumococcal disease in adults and in people with conditions that increase their risk of disease.
Pneumonia Vaccine Recommendations For Adults
A single dose of pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for Australian adults when they reach 65 and is provided free under the Federal Governments National Immunisation Program. The vaccine is also subsidised on the PBS for younger people with medical conditions, such as cardiac, liver and congenital diseases, that place them at an increased risk of infection. Such individuals are recommended to have up to two repeat vaccinations at 5 yearly intervals.
Who Else Can Take The Vaccine
The vaccine has been found to be safe and effective in people with various conditions that are associated with increased risk of severe disease.
This includes hypertension, diabetes, asthma, pulmonary, liver or kidney disease, as well as chronic infections that are stable and controlled.
Further studies are required for the impacts on immune-compromised persons. The interim recommendation is that immune-compromised persons who are part of a group recommended for vaccination may be vaccinated, though when possible, not before receiving information and counselling.
Persons living with HIV are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease. Limited safety data exists on HIV-infected persons with well controlled disease from the clinical trials. Known HIV-positive vaccine recipients should be informed, and when possible, counselled in relation to the available data.
Vaccination can be offered to people who have had COVID-19 in the past. But given the limited vaccine supply, individuals may wish to defer their own COVID-19 vaccination for up to 6 months from the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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Why Adults Also Need Bacterial Pneumonia Vaccinations
This year in particular the focus of Lung Foundation Australias Pneumonia Awareness Week is very much on members of the community who are the most vulnerable, numbering among them those impacted by lung disease and lung cancer, but also people aged 65 years and older. Each year, more than 78,000 Australians are hospitalised with pneumonia and the average length of stay in acute care increases with age from 6 days for those under 65 to 13 days for those 65+.
Back in 2014, the Love your lungs at 65 years young research revealed that 2-in-3 Australian older adults considered themselves to be younger and fitter than their parents were at their age and 65% of those aged 65-74 didnt consider their age to be a health risk factor. Regardless, it is an unfortunate fact of life that the immune systems of people 65 years and older, even in those baby boomers who feel fit and healthy, are less effective at dealing with infections this puts them at increased risk of severe disease.
Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine
- People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you or your child:
- Feel dizzy
- Have vision changes
- Have ringing in the ears
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More Information For Health Professionals
Clinical update: National Immunisation Program changes form 1 July 2020 advice for immunisation providers:
National Immunisation Program Schedule:
What About Other Vaccines Being Developed To Fight Covid
WHO does not usually make vaccine specific recommendations, issuing instead one recommendation that covers all vaccines for a given disease, unless the evidence suggests a different approach is required.
Due to the large variety of COVID-19 vaccines based on very different platform technologies, WHO is looking at vaccines as they are authorized by highly competent national regulatory authorities and that are available in sufficient supply to address the needs of many countries.
WHO has no preferred product, and the variety of products, including their specific attributes and handling requirements, allow for countries to find the products that are most suitable for their circumstances.
WHOs SAGE is expected to review other vaccines in the coming months.
This webpage was on 20 April 2021 to ensure consistency of information and formatting.
This article was corrected on 12 January 2021 to remove an erroneous reference relating to pregnancy. WHO does NOT recommend that pregnancy be avoided post-vaccination.
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What If It Is Not Clear What A Person’s Vaccination History Is
When indicated, vaccines should be administered to patients with unknown vaccination status. All residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities should have their vaccination status assessed and documented.
How long must a person wait to receive other vaccinations?
Inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanusvaccines may be given at the same time as or at any time before or after a dose of pneumococcus vaccine. There are no requirements to wait between the doses of these or any other inactivated vaccines.
Vaccination of children recommended
In July 2000, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC jointly recommended childhood pneumococcal immunization, since pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States.
“The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13 or Prevnar 13, is currently recommended for all children younger than 5 years of age, all adults 65 years or older, and persons 6 through 64 years of age with certain medical conditions,” according to the 2014 AAP/CDC guidelines. “Pneumovax is a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that is currently recommended for use in all adults 65 years of age or older and for persons who are 2 years and older and at high risk for pneumococcal disease . PPSV23 is also recommended for use in adults 19 through 64 years of age who smoke cigarettes or who have asthma.”
When To Get The Influenza Vaccine
New season influenza vaccines under the NIP are expected to be available from April. Timing may be different for your local area. Check with your immunisation provider to find out when they will have the vaccine available and when you will be able to book in to have the vaccine.
Annual influenza vaccine should occur anytime from April onwards to be protected for the peak flu season, which is generally June to September. The highest level of protection occurs in the first 3 to 4 months following vaccination.
However, it is never too late to vaccinate since influenza can circulate in the community all year round.
Pregnant women should receive the vaccine at any stage during pregnancy.
Influenza vaccines can be given on the same day with a COVID-19 vaccine.
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Is This Vaccine Recommended For Adolescents
A Phase 3 trial in children aged 12-15 years showed high efficacy and good safety in this age group, leading to an extension of the previous age indication from 16 years onwards down to age 12 onwards.
Evidence suggests that adolescents, particularly older adolescents, are as likely to transmit SARS-CoV-2 as adults. WHO recommends that countries should consider using the vaccine in children aged 12 to 15 only when high vaccine coverage with 2 doses has been achieved in the high priority groups as identified in the WHO Prioritization Roadmap.
Children 12-15 years of age with comorbidities that put them at significantly higher risk of serious COVID-19 disease, alongside other high-risk groups, may be offered vaccination.
How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works
Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.
Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.
They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.
More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.
The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.
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About Pneumonia & Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Pneumonia is a broad term used to describe inflammatory lung infections that can be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi.9During normal respiration, air travels through the lungs to the alveoli or air sacs. Pneumonia results when air sacs in the lungs fill with secretions and fluids that obstruct normal air flow.9Pneumonia symptoms include fever, cough and difficulty breathing and stiffness of the bones and joints.12One of the most severe and potentially life-threatening forms of pneumonia is pneumococcal pneumonia, which is caused by the bacterium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and is the only bacterial pneumonia for which vaccination is available.7,9
What Is Pneumococcal Disease
Pneumococcal disease is caused by a specific type of bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae. Its most common in children, but can also cause significant complications in older adults or people with chronic conditions.
The pneumococcal bacterium is contagious, which means that it can be passed from one person to another. This typically happens through direct contact with respiratory secretions like saliva or mucus.
Developing a pneumococcal infection can lead to a variety of conditions, some of which can be life threatening. Conditions caused by pneumococcal infections include:
Vaccination against a pneumococcal infection helps prevent you or your child from becoming sick from pneumococcal diseases. It also aids in preventing these diseases from spreading within your community.
Vaccination cant always prevent all cases of pneumococcal disease. Nevertheless, according to the , even just 1 dose can help protect against a variety of pneumococcal infections.
There are two vaccines available for pneumococcal disease:
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Where Can I Find These Vaccines
Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.
PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.
Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.
When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.
Study Design And Data Sources
The study design was cross-sectional and descriptive, both for IPD notifications and coded hospitalizations consistent with PnCAP.
IPD data were sourced from core and enhanced National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System datasets between 2002 and 2016. NNDSS core data on cases of IPD notified to the 8 Australian State and Territory health departments includes age, date of onset, serotype, and vaccination history, while enhanced data add clinical category and risk factor status. The case definition for IPD was isolation of S. pneumoniae by culture, or detection by nucleic acid testing, from a normally sterile site .
PnCAP data were sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfares National Hospital Morbidity Database for the period 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2016. PnCAP was defined as hospitalizations assigned International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification discharge codes J13 and J18.1 , together or separately, after excluding cases also assigned the codes G00.1 and A40.3 . ICD-10-AM discharge codes were used throughout the study period.
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What Is The Recommended Dosage
A protective effect starts to develop 12 days after the first dose, but full protection requires two doses which WHO recommends be administered with a 21 to 28-day interval. Additional research is needed to understand longer-term potential protection after a single dose. It is currently recommended that the same product should be used for both doses.
Studies have shown a high public health impact where the interval has been longer than that recommended by the EUL. Accordingly, countries facing a high incidence of COVID-19 combined with severe vaccine supply constraints could consider delaying the second dose up to 12 weeks in order to achieve a higher first dose coverage in high priority populations.
Who Should Get Vaccinated Against Influenza
Yearly influenza vaccination is recommended for people aged 6 months and over. Anyone who wants to protect themselves against influenza can talk to their immunisation provider about getting vaccinated.
The following people are more at risk of complications from influenza and are eligible for annual influenza vaccination free under the National Immunisation Program:
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 6 months and over
- Children aged 6 months to under 5 years
- Pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy
- People aged 65 years or over.
- People aged 6 months or over who have medical conditions that mean they have a higher risk of getting serious disease:
- cardiac disease
- haematological disorders
- children aged six months to 10 years on long term aspirin therapy.
Children under nine years receiving their influenza vaccination for the first time require two doses of vaccine, spaced by a minimum of one month.
In some states and territories, influenza vaccines may also be provided for free to other people not listed above. Speak to your immunisation provider or contact your state or territory Department of Health to find out.
People who are not eligible for a free vaccine can purchase the vaccine from their immunisation provider.
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Whats The Difference Between Pcv13 And Ppsv23
|helps protect you against 13 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria||helps protect you against 23 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria|
|usually given four separate times to children under two||generally given once to anyone over 64|
|generally given only once to adults older than 64 or adults older than 19 if they have an immune condition||given to anyone over 19 who regularly smokes nicotine products like cigarettes or cigars|
- Both vaccines help prevent pneumococcal complications like bacteremia and meningitis.
- Youll need more than one pneumonia shot during your lifetime. A 2016 study found that, if youre over 64, receiving both the PCV13 shot and the PPSV23 shot provide the best protection against all the strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia.
- Dont get the shots too close together. Youll need to wait about a year in between each shot.
- Check with your doctor to make sure youre not allergic to any of the ingredients used to make these vaccines before getting either shot.
- a vaccine made with diphtheria toxoid
- another version of the shot called PCV7
- any previous injections of a pneumonia shot
- are allergic to any ingredients in the shot
- have had severe allergies to a PPSV23 shot in the past
- are very sick
Why Are There So Many Vaccines In Development
Typically, many vaccine candidates will be evaluated before any are found to be both safe and effective. For example, of all the vaccines that are studied in the lab and laboratory animals, roughly 7 out of every 100 will be considered good enough to move into clinical trials in humans. Of the vaccines that do make it to clinical trials, just one in five is successful. Having lots of different vaccines in development increases the chances that there will be one or more successful vaccines that will be shown to be safe and efficacious for the intended prioritized populations.
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Possible Side Effects Of Influenza Vaccination
You may experience minor side effects following vaccination. Most reactions are mild and last no more than a couple of days and you will recover without any problems.
Common side effects of influenza vaccines include:
- pain, redness, swelling or hardness where the needle went in
- fever, tiredness, body aches.
Talk to your immunisation provider about possible side effects of the influenza vaccines, or if you or your child have side effects that worry you.
The Consumer Medicine Information available on the Therapeutic Goods Administration website lists the ingredients and side effects of each vaccine.
Learn more about the possible side effects of vaccination
How We Know Vaccines Are Safe
Research and testing is an essential part of developing safe and effective vaccines. Before a vaccine is accepted for use in Australia, it is tested on thousands of people in clinical trials. All vaccines used in Australia have been thoroughly tested for safety and effectiveness and are continually monitored to ensure they are safe. The Therapeutic Goods Administration regulates all medicines in Australia, including vaccines.
The Australian Academy of Science has reviewed studies which investigate the safety of vaccines. It also has other information and videos based on scientific research which help us to understand immunisation and the role of vaccines. Go to the Australian Academy of Science for further information.
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