Vaccinations In People With Rheumatic Diseases
There is no evidence that vaccinations commonly cause a flare of autoimmune disease, and specifically in rheumatic conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This is true of:
- pneumococcal vaccine , commonly called the pneumonia vaccine
- influenza vaccine , commonly called the flu shot or flu vaccine
Both of these vaccines are strongly recommended for people with inflammatory rheumatic diseases like lupus. This is because these patients have disease-related increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory infection. That is, they have a heightened risk of respiratory infection, including severe illness and, rarely, death. The Tdap vaccine for tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis is routinely given once in adulthood, and is helpful for patients taking immunosuppressive agents.
Messenger Rna Vaccinesalso Called Mrna Vaccines
Researchers have been studying and working with mRNA vaccines for decades and this technology was used to make some of the COVID-19 vaccines. mRNA vaccines make proteins in order to trigger an immune response. mRNA vaccines have several benefits compared to other types of vaccines, including shorter manufacturing times and, because they do not contain a live virus, no risk of causing disease in the person getting vaccinated.
mRNA vaccines are used to protect against:
Understanding Live Vaccines And Vaccine Shedding
Vaccines stimulate your body to produce immunity against an infection. Live attenuated vaccines use a significantly weakened form of a virus to do this. The pathogen itself is introduced into the body, but it has been modified so that it can replicate and trigger the immune system, typically without causing illness.
In terms of building immunity against a pathogen, the body’s response is “virtually identical” to what would occur if you were naturally infected, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
Live vaccines have saved lives. But there are some who have expressed concerns that live vaccines can trigger viral sheddingthe process by which cells of the body release viral particles and, by doing so, increase the risk of transmitting the infection to others.
The risk of viral shedding is one of the many reasons why anti-vaccination proponents claim that vaccinations are unsafe.
Despite the theoretical risk of infection from vaccine-induced viral shedding, there remains little evidence that such a phenomenon poses any genuine public health risks.
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What To Do If Your Child Is Unwell After Pneumococcal Vaccination
Most common side effects in babies and young children, such as swelling or redness at the injection site, usually go away within a couple of days and you do not need to do anything about them.
If your child develops a fever, keep them cool. Make sure they do not wear too many layers of clothes or blankets, and give them cool drinks.
You can also give them a dose of infant paracetamol or ibuprofen liquid according to the instructions on the bottle.
Read an NHS leaflet about the common side effects of vaccination that may occur in babies and children under the age of 5, and how to treat them.
Side Effects Of The Vaccines Against Pneumococcal Disease
Vaccines against pneumococcal disease are effective and safe, although all medications can have unwanted side effects.
Side effects from the vaccine are uncommon and usually mild, but may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- occasionally, an injection-site lump that may last many weeks
- low-grade temperature .
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Fact: People Should Not Wear Masks While Exercising
People should NOT wear masks when exercising, as masks may reduce the ability to breathe comfortably.
Sweat can make the mask become wet more quickly which makes it difficult to breathe and promotes the growth of microorganisms. The important preventive measure during exercise is to maintain physical distance of at least one meter from others.
Fact: Drinking Methanol Ethanol Or Bleach Does Not Prevent Or Cure Covid
Methanol, ethanol, and bleach are poisons. Drinking them can lead to disability and death. Methanol, ethanol, and bleach are sometimes used in cleaning products to kill the virus on surfaces however you should never drink them. They will not kill the virus in your body and they will harm your internal organs.
To protect yourself against COVID-19, disinfect objects and surfaces, especially the ones you touch regularly. You can use diluted bleach or alcohol for that. Make sure you clean your hands frequently and thoroughly and avoid touching your eyes, mouth and nose.
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The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program
The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program is a federal program that was created to compensate people who may have been injured by certain vaccines. Claims regarding alleged injury or death due to vaccination have a time limit for filing, which may be as short as two years. Visit the VICP website at or call to learn about the program and about filing a claim.
Fact: Vaccines Against Pneumonia Do Not Protect Against The Covid
Vaccines against pneumonia, such as pneumococcal vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine, do not provide protection against the new coronavirus.
The virus is so new and different that it needs its own vaccine. Researchers are trying to develop a vaccine against COVID-19, and WHO is supporting their efforts.
Although these vaccines are not effective against COVID-19, vaccination against respiratory illnesses is highly recommended to protect your health.
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Fact: Water Or Swimming Does Not Transmit The Covid
The COVID-19 virus does not transmit through water while swimming. However, the virus spreads between people when someone has close contact with an infected person.
WHAT YOU CAN DO:
Avoid crowds and maintain at least a 1-metre distance from others, even when you are swimming or at swimming areas. Wear a mask when youre not in the water and you cant stay distant. Clean your hands frequently, cover a cough or sneeze with a tissue or bent elbow, and stay home if youre unwell.
Vaccines And Multiple Sclerosis: A Practical Guide
Kathy Tortorice, PharmD, BCPS — VA National Pharmacy Benefits Management Service
Vaccines have been the focus of the news lately. Many questions come up when discussing the importance of vaccines for maintaining our health. Vaccines protect us from diseases without us having to experience the actual disease. Currently, there are vaccines available to protect children and adults against at least 17 serious diseases. Lets look at what vaccines are, who needs them, and some common questions or concerns people have about vaccines.
Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated inactivated or killed organisms or viruses inactivated toxins , such vaccines are more stable and safer than live vaccines or merely segments of the pathogen .
It is important to be up to date on your vaccinations before starting a disease modifying therapy for your MS. Fingolimod might increase the risk of a potentially life-threatening varicella zoster so your provider will generally check for VZV antibodies before initiating fingolimod therapy. If immunity is not demonstrated by elevated VZV antibody levels, you will need the chicken pox vaccination before starting fingolimod. It is recommended that you then wait one month after your last VZV immunization to let the vaccine work before starting fingolimod therapy.
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How Do The Pneumonia Vaccines Work
Like all vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines work by showing the immune system a version of the microbe, or a part of it, that is responsible for the infection. The pneumococcal vaccine contains part of the pneumococcus bacterias outer shell, made of molecules called polysaccharides. The immune system learns to recognize it, attack it, and defend the body against it, should it ever come into contact with the real bacteria.
The body does this by making antibodies against the shell of the pneumococcus bacteria. These antibodies stay in your bloodstream as part of your immune system. If you are exposed to pneumococci in the future, the antibodies recognize the bacterias shell and launch a targeted defense.
There are strains of pneumococcus, so the vaccines are made up of molecules from many of those strains.
Other Types Of Pneumococcal Disease
Pneumonia vaccines protect against pneumococcal infections in other parts of the body. These infections include:
What is it: An infection in the middle part of the ear.
Symptoms: Fever, ear pain, and decreased hearing
Who gets it: In the U.S., over 5 million children get it each year. Pneumococcus is a common cause of ear infections. It is found in up to 30% of samples of middle ear fluid.
What is it: A sinus infection, which is often first caused by a virus. Later, a bacterial infection can set in, causing worsening or ongoing symptoms.
Symptoms: Pain and pressure around the eyes and nose, fever, drainage, and congestion
Who gets it: Sinus infections are more common in adults than in children. Pneumococcus is a common cause and may contribute to up to 35% of sinus infections.
What is it: An infection of the leptomeninges, or the tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be life-threatening, so getting immediate treatment is important.
Symptoms: Fever, confusion, headache, and neck stiffness
Who gets it: Pneumococcal meningitis usually occurs in very young children and older adults. In the U.S., pneumococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5.
These infections can also be caused by other bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumococcus, the pneumococcal vaccines, is only one cause.
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When To See A Doctor
A person who is over 65 years of age should talk to their doctor about which pneumonia vaccine may be best for them. The doctor can help determine whether they should get the vaccination, which vaccination to get, and when to get it.
Parents and caregivers of young children should talk to a pediatrician about the schedule for the pneumonia vaccination. The pediatrician can also address any questions or concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccination.
A person does not need to see a doctor for mild reactions to the vaccine, such as tenderness at the injection site, fever, or fatigue.
However, if a person experiences any life threatening side effects, they should seek emergency help immediately.
Signs and symptoms of allergic reactions in children may include:
- respiratory distress, such as wheezing
Who Should Not Get These Vaccines
Because of age or health conditions, some people should not get certain vaccines or should wait before getting them. Read the guidelines below specific to pneumococcal vaccines and ask your or your childs doctor for more information.
Children younger than 2 years old should not get PPSV23. In addition, tell the person who is giving you or your child a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine if:
You or your child have had a life-threatening allergic reaction or have a severe allergy.
- Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any of the following should not get PCV13:
- A shot of this vaccine
- An earlier pneumococcal conjugate vaccine called PCV7
- Any vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid
You or your child are not feeling well.
- People who have a mild illness, such as a cold, can probably get vaccinated. People who have a more serious illness should probably wait until they recover. Your or your childs doctor can advise you.
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Fact: Rinsing Your Nose With Saline Does Not Prevent Covid
There is no evidence that regularly rinsing the nose with saline has protected people from infection with the new coronavirus.
There is some limited evidence that regularly rinsing the nose with saline can help people recover more quickly from the common cold. However, regularly rinsing the nose has not been shown to prevent respiratory infections.
Fact: Thermal Scanners Cannot Detect Covid
Thermal scanners are effective in detecting people who have a fever . They cannot detect people who are infected with COVID-19. There are many causes of fever. Call your healthcare provider if you need assistance or seek immediate medical care if you have fever and live in an area with malaria or dengue.
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How Live Vaccines Differ
Live attenuated vaccines have been among the most successful preventive interventions in medical history. Due to global vaccination programs, smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, while polio and measles have been declared eliminated in some parts of the world.
Live viral vaccines are just one type of vaccine. There are other types that do not involve live viruses or bacteria. These include:
- Inactivated vaccines: Also referred to as “killed” or “inactivated whole-cell” vaccines, these involve a dead virus or bacterium that the immune system still regards as harmful, triggering a pathogen-specific immune response. The annual flu shot is one such example of this, as are the rabies and hepatitis A vaccines.
- Toxoid vaccines:These vaccines do not produce immunity to the actual infection. Rather, they contain a chemically altered toxin made by the bacterium or virus that the immune system responds to, preventing the harmful effects of the infection. The tetanus vaccine is one such example of this type.
How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works
Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.
Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.
They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.
More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.
The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.
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Fact: Being Able To Hold Your Breath For 10 Seconds Or More Without Coughing Or Feeling Discomfort Does Not Mean You Are Free From Covid
The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are dry cough, tiredness and fever. Some people may develop more severe forms of the disease, such as pneumonia. The best way to confirm if you have the virus producing COVID-19 disease is with a laboratory test. You cannot confirm it with this breathing exercise, which can even be dangerous.
What Are The Pneumonia Vaccines
There are two FDA-approved vaccines that protect against pneumonia:
13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, or PCV13
23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, or PPSV23
These immunizations are called pneumonia vaccines because they prevent pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. They are also known as pneumococcal vaccines because they protect against a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. Although there are many viruses, bacteria, and fungi that cause pneumonia, pneumococcus is the most common cause. Pneumococcus can also cause infections in other parts of the body.
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What Is A Dead Vaccine
A dead vaccine may also be called an inactivated vaccine. These vaccines contain killed or inactive versions of the pathogen that the vaccine is helping to protect against. These pathogens may have been killed through chemicals or via heat.
Vaccines with a dead virus work because once the dead pathogen reaches the immune system, the immune system reacts. The body knows how to fight the virus, without the danger of getting sick from that vaccine.
Usually, when it comes to dead or inactivated vaccines, booster shots are required. Due to the fact that it is dead, the response from the immune system isnt as strong as it would be if it were a weakened vaccine.
They also cannot be stored without refrigeration because they are quite fragile.
Some dead vaccines include: polio, cholera, influenza, hepatitis A, and typhoid.
Is Dexamethasone A Treatment For All Covid
Dexamethasone should be reserved for patients who need it most. It should not be stockpiled.
It provided no improvement for patients with mild symptoms. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid used for its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. For some COVID-19 patients on ventilators, a daily 6 mg dose of dexamethasone for 10 days improved their health
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Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine In Adults And Older Children
Mild side effects of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine , the version of the pneumococcal vaccine given to adults and children over the age of 2, include:
- mild soreness or hardness at the site of the injection lasting 1 to 3 days
- a slightly raised temperature
More serious side effects of the PPV vaccine, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
Allergic Reaction To The Pneumonia Vaccine
In rare cases, people have an allergic reaction to the pneumonia vaccine shortly after receiving their jab. This is known as anaphylaxis, and it can be life-threatening.
The good news is, all doctors, nurses and pharmacists who administer the jab are trained to deal with anaphylaxis. If you happen to have a severe reaction, the medical professional who gave you the jab will be able to carry out emergency treatment.
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Prosthetic Joint Infection Prevention
Before a hip, knee or other prosthetic , Dr. Brause emphasized that a patient with a chronic dermatitis condition should see a dermatologist to make sure any skin conditions are under optimal control. Any visible lesions or breaks in the skin can predispose a patient to infection. All dental needs, such as cleanings or dental procedures, should be addressed prior to the operation as well.
The most common types of infections which can be spread to the prosthetic joint through the bloodstream include:
- Skin problems.
- Teeth/gum problems.
- Urinary tract infections . Any bladder procedures also need to be completed before surgery. If these procedures are not taken care of prior to surgery, an infection could travel through the bloodstream and infect the prosthesis.
During surgery, the care team will work to reduce the infection rate as best they can through the use of prophylactic antibiotics and laminar air flow. Prophylactic administration refers to the act of administering antibiotics prior to surgery in order to prevent infection. Laminar air flow is a system that filters and cleans the air in the operating room.
After joint replacement surgery, it is essential to visit the dermatologist if you have any chronic dermatitis condition. This is to maintain intact skin and keep chronic dermatitis under control to prevent infection. It is also essential to keep teeth/gums healthy and take care of any urinary tract infections promptly.