How Is Multifocal Pneumonia Treated
Doctors like to try to catch pneumonia early so that they can treat it appropriately and catch it before it progresses too far, Dr. Gates says. But the actual treatment depends on what’s causing the pneumonia in the first place. “You’ve got to find the cause,” Dr. Casciari says.
Once doctors figure out what’s behind the pneumonia, they’ll prescribe a treatment based on that. “For patients with mild symptoms, treatment centers around rest, hydration, and good nutrition,” Dr. Sood says. If the pneumonia is bacterial, the patient will be given antibiotics, she says. But, Dr. Sood points out, “most patients with viral pneumonia do not require antibiotics.” Instead, they may be treated with an antiviral medication like oseltamivir or remdesivir, depending on the cause of the infection. And, if a patient has fungal pneumonia, it will be treated with antifungal medication, Dr. Casciari says.
A person’s overall health matters with recovery from multifocal pneumonia. “Most healthy people with minimal underlying medical conditions usually recover from pneumonia with no issue over the course of several days,” Dr. Sood says. “Patients who have underlying medical conditions still may have good recovery but it may take longer. In very severe cases, pneumonia can cause death.”
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What Health Complications Can Pneumonia Lead To
If you have flu-like symptoms that persist or worsen despite treatment, talk to your doctor.
Your doctor can monitor your lungs while you inhale, listening for crackling sounds that are audible only with a stethoscope.
In order to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific germ causing the illness, you may get a chest X-ray as well as a blood test, depending on your medical history and physical exam, if your doctor suspects that you have pneumonia.
If left untreated, pneumonia can become severe.
People with severe pneumonia experience higher fevers along with GI symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea, as well as:
- Difficulty breathing
Severe Or Complicated Pneumonia
As you move into the red or gray hepatization phases of pneumonia, you may need to be treated with intravenous antibiotics or fluids. You may also require supplemental oxygen.
Medications used in more severe cases of pneumonia requiring inpatient care usually include formulas that combine more than one type of antibiotic, such as:
Viral pneumonia caused by influenza may also require the use of oseltamivir, an antiviral medication, which is predominantly used to shorten the course of viral pneumonia.
In severe cases, you may also need direct drainage of fluids from your lungs with a chest tube.
A chest tube could be used if a person develops a parapneumonic effusion, which is not in the lungs but around the lungs in the thoracic cavity, which is also known as the pleural space.
You will be observed closely for any complications if you have other health conditions like:
- kidney disease
- other lung conditions
People with other conditions are more likely to have pneumonia that progresses to or multi-organ failure and even death.
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Articles On Pneumonia Types
âWalking pneumonia” sounds like it could be the name of a sci-fi horror flick. But it’s actually the least scary kind of pneumonia. It can be milder than the other types, and you usually donât have to stay in the hospital. You could have walking pneumonia and not even know it.
The 4 Stages Of Pneumonia
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Lobar pneumonia is typically the more fatal form of this infection because it tends to encompass the entirety of the lobe.
While lobar pneumonia is usually described as moving through phases, new research suggests that severe illness or even death can occur in any of these stages, and you may not move through these stages in an orderly fashion. Its also possible for you to be in more than one stage of this progression at a time.
Typically, these stages are used to help guide treatment and grade the severity of a lobar pneumonia infection. Below is an explanation of each stage.
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Is Pneumonia Treated Any Differently In Children
Essentially no. Just like adults, bacterial causes of pneumonia in children may be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics are not used to treat pneumonia caused by viruses. Flu-related pneumonia may be treated with antiviral medicine if caught early in the course of illness. Most cases of pneumonia are treated with comfort care measures that ease symptoms. These may include:
- Drinking more fluids.
- Getting more rest.
- Taking over-the-counter medicines for cough and acetaminophen for fever. Be sure to check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you have any questions or concerns about giving medicines to your child.
- Using a cool mist humidifier in your childs room.
What Is The Prognosis For Bacterial Pneumonia
The prognosis depends on the severity of disease and whether there are any predisposing factors. The prognosis is generally good for uncomplicated bacterial pneumonia. The prognosis for animals with predisposing factors depends on whether the risk factor can be treated or resolved. If the risk factors cannot be resolved, recurrent infections may occur. The prognosis for young or geriatric animals, patients with immunodeficiency diseases, or patients that are debilitated is guarded.
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How To Prevent Pneumonia
Some pneumonias are preventable. Vaccinations are available to prevent pneumonia caused by some viruses and bacteria. Also, living a healthy lifestyle by eating a balanced diet and regularly exercising can minimize the risk of contracting pneumonia. Routine exercise can increase lung health and resistance to infections.
A healthy lifestyle also includes refraining from smoking and drinking too much alcohol to help keep the immune system healthy. Getting plenty of rest and drinking water is yet another way to help prevent illnesses like pneumonia.
Practicing thorough hand washing can also reduce your exposure to germs that can cause pneumonia, especially during cold and flu season. If you cough or sneeze, do your best to do so into a disposable tissue or the elbow of your sleeve, followed by washing your hands. Be sure to disinfect frequently used surfaces such as telephones, countertops, and doorknobs to prevent the spread of germs that can cause pneumonia.
Lastly, if people in your community are sick, do your best to practice social distancing when possible. Reducing your exposure to bacteria and viruses while living a healthy and active lifestyle can play an essential role in maintaining wellness.
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia
- Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia is caused by inflammation of the small airways of the lungs. It is also known as cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis .
- Eosinophilic pneumonia
- Eosinophilic pneumonia is invasion of the lung by eosinophils, a particular kind of white blood cell. Eosinophilic pneumonia often occurs in response to infection with a parasite or after exposure to certain types of environmental factors.
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Is Bacterial Pneumonia Contagious
Whether or not bacterial pneumonia is contagious depends upon the type of bacteria causing the infection. In many cases, people contract pneumonia when bacteria they normally carry in the nose or throat are spread to the lungs. Most kinds of bacterial pneumonia are not highly contagious. However, pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and tuberculosis are exceptions. Both these types of bacterial pneumonia are highly contagious. These are spread among people by breathing in infected droplets that come from coughing or sneezing, similar to the spread of viral infections.
Can Pneumonia Be Prevented
Some types of pneumonia can be prevented by vaccines. Kids usually get routine vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and whooping cough beginning at 2 months of age.
The flu vaccine is recommended for all kids ages 6 months through 19 years. Its extra important for kids who have a chronic illness such as a heart or lung disorder or asthma.
When possible, keep kids away from anyone with symptoms of a respiratory infection.
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What Causes Bacterial Pneumonia
Doctors often refer to typical and atypical pneumonias, based on the signs and symptoms of the condition. This can help to predict the type of bacteria causing the pneumonia, the duration of the illness, and the optimal treatment method.
Typical pneumonia comes on very quickly.
- Typical pneumonia usually results in a high fever and shaking chills.
- Typical pneumonia usually leads to the production of yellow or brown sputum when coughing.
- There may be chest pain, which is usually worse with breathing or coughing. The chest also may be sore when it is touched or pressed.
- Typical pneumonia can cause shortness of breath, especially if the person has any chronic lung conditions such as asthma or emphysema.
- Because chest pain also can be a sign of other serious medical conditions, do not try to self-diagnose.
- Older people can have confusion or a change in their mental abilities as a sign of pneumonia or other infection.
Atypical pneumonia has a gradual onset.
- It is often referred to as “walking pneumonia.”
- Sometimes it follows another illness in the days to weeks before the pneumonia.
- The fever is usually lower, and shaking chills are less likely.
Is Pneumonia Contagious Types And Symptoms Of Pneumonia
Written byDr. Victor MarchionePublished onMay 9, 2016
If you ever wondered whether pneumonia is contagious, we are here to address your concerns. First of all, pneumonia is inflammation of the lung tissue, caused by a virus, bacteria, or fungus. In pneumonia, the air sacs become filled with pus. What part of the lung is affected and whether it is a single lung or both determines what kind of pneumonia it is we will explain the types of pneumonia later on.
Pneumonia may be contagious if it is caused by an infectious microbe. But if pneumonia is caused by chemical fumes or other poisons, then it is not contagious.
The different types of pneumonia stem from their cause. For example, there is bacterial pneumonia and viral pneumonia. Pneumonia can also bear a descriptive name, such as community-acquired or hospital-acquired pneumonia. Most of the types of pneumonia are contagious, but not as contagious as the flu, for example.
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Q How To Know More About Pneumonia
To understand what Pneumonia is, we need to know what lung is. The most important resource to maintain life is Oxygen that we breathe. Without Oxygen all of our cells die very fast. Most importantly, brain starts to die of lack of oxygen within around 6 minutes. And you know, we always use the term Brain Dead to imply actual death.
What Is The Treatment For Bacterial Pneumonia
The appropriate antibiotic treatment is determined by the results of the culture and sensitivity tests. These tests identify the specific bacterial species causing the infection and which type of antibiotics will combat this infection. Since the results of culture and sensitivity testing will not be available immediately, your veterinarian may begin treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic, such as doxycycline or amoxicillin, while awaiting the test results. It may be necessary to change the medication once the results are available. Your veterinarian will choose the appropriate antibiotics for your dog’s particular situation.
“Medications may be required for a prolonged period of time, depending on the specific type of infection and the seriousness of the condition.”
If your dog has respiratory distress or is dehydrated or anorexic , hospitalization for oxygen therapy and/or intravenous fluids and medications may be necessary.
If your dog is stable enough to be treated as an outpatient, your veterinarian may also prescribe bronchodilators, expectorants, or other medications to control specific symptoms. Medications may be required for a prolonged period of time, depending on the specific type of infection and the seriousness of the condition.
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A Prompt Diagnosis For Proper Treatment
If you suspect your loved one may have pneumonia, you should call a doctor right away. Earlier diagnosis can lead to faster treatment that promotes better outcomes especially for seniors who are at a higher risk of developing serious complications.
A doctor will conduct a physical exam and may order imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment will depend on whether the pneumonia is caused by bacteria, viruses, or other types of infection.
Bacterial pneumonia comes on gradually or suddenly and is typically treated with antibiotics.
Viral pneumonia usually develops over several days and may be accompanied by flu-like symptoms. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, so viral pneumonia is generally treated with supportive care such as increased fluid intake, over-the-counter medications, and rest.
Older adults who experience severe pneumonia symptoms or have other health problems may need to be hospitalized. While in the hospital, treatment may include intravenous antibiotics, respiratory therapy, and oxygen therapy. Doctors will also watch for signs of complications.
How Do The Lungs Work
Your lungs main job is to get oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide. This happens during breathing. You breathe 12 to 20 times per minute when you are not sick. When you breathe in, air travels down the back of your throat and passes through your voice box and into your windpipe . Your trachea splits into two air passages . One bronchial tube leads to the left lung, the other to the right lung. For the lungs to perform their best, the airways need to be open as you breathe in and out. Swelling and mucus can make it harder to move air through the airways, making it harder to breathe. This leads to shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and feeling more tired than normal.
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How Common Is Pneumonia
Approximately 1 million adults in the United States are hospitalized each year for pneumonia and 50,000 die from the disease. It is the second most common reason for being admitted to the hospital — childbirth is number one. Pneumonia is the most common reason children are admitted to the hospital in the United States. Seniors who are hospitalized for pneumonia face a higher risk of death compared to any of the top 10 other reasons for hospitalization.
Q How Do We Diagnose Pneumonia
Diagnosis is based on the symptoms, the findings on examination and the investigations which would be done. The usual investigations that we do are
- Complete blood count Will show an increased number of WBC.
- Serum electrolytes
- Sputum for Microscopy and culture- Identification of the organism
- Blood for culture
- Chest X-ray Location and extend of the infection can be seen. Further, we can also see if any associated fluid collection is present in the pleural space.
- Pleural fluid can be drained and sent for microscopy and culture.
Image 3: An X-ray film showing Pneumonia of the right lower lobe
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What Causes Multifocal Pneumonia
Technically, multifocal pneumonia can be caused by the same things that cause other types of pneumoniaviruses, bacteria, and fungi. But “if it’s multifocal, it’s more likely to be caused by a virus, like we’ve seen with COVID-19,” Khalilah Gates, MD, a pulmonary and critical care specialist at Northwestern Medicine, tells Health. Other potential causes of viral multifocal pneumonia include respiratory syncytial virus and some common cold and flu viruses, according to the US National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus resource.
Multifocal pneumonia can also be caused by a bacteria like streptococcus pneumoniae or legionella pneumophila, or a fungus like pneumocystis pneumonia, coccidioidomycosis, or cryptococcus, Dr. Casciari says. “Having multifocal pneumonia doesn’t automatically signify what’s causing the pneumonia,” he says. “We still have to investigate.”
Upper Middle And Lower Lobe Pneumonia
X-rays play an important role in distinguishing between these types: the term lobar pneumonia is used if an entire lung lobe is visibly inflamed. Depending on which lung lobe is affected, the pneumonia is referred to as upper, middle or lower lobe pneumonia.
If there are several multi-lobe focal inflammations in the lungs, the term focal pneumonia is used. Some people use the term bronchopneumonia if the focal inflammations started in inflamed airways .
Sometimes, it’s the air sacs that are more inflamed , and sometimes it’s the tissue between the sacs .
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What Is Multifocal Pneumonia
To have a better understanding of what multifocal pneumonia is, you first need to know a bit about lung biology. Your lungs are made up of sections that are like small balloons filled with sponge-like tissue, according to the American Lung Association . Your right lung is divided into three lobes, and your left lung has two lobes.
While pneumonia, in general, is an infection in one or both lungs, multifocal pneumonia narrows the diagnosis down a little more to how much of the lung is affected. Essentially, multifocal pneumonia is a term that’s used to describe pneumonia in different spots of the lung, Raymond Casciari, MD, a pulmonologist at St. Joseph Hospital in Orange, Calif., tells Health. “Multifocal could be two spots in the same lobe, or two spots in different lobes,” he says.
Doctors can further break down multifocal pneumonia by calling it unilateral multifocal pneumonia and bilateral multifocal pneumonia, Shweta Sood, MD, MS, a pulmonary medicine physician and assistant professor of clinical medicine at Penn Medicine, tells Health. “Unilateral pneumonia refers to pneumonia only affecting one lungright or left,” she explains. “Bilateral pneumonia tends to affect both lungs.”