Groups At Risk Of Ipd
People who are immunocompromised and unable to mount an adequate immune response to pneumococcal capsular antigens have the highest risk of IPD.2,4,34 This includes people with asplenia.
Greater risk and/or severity of IPD
- excessive alcohol consumption
- certain non-immunocompromising chronic medical conditions2,34,42,43
Indigenous populations in developed countries, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, have a disproportionately high burden of IPD
Young children and elderly people have the highest incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease .37,38,45 Disease burden is also disproportionately high in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.1,2
Patients In Health Care Institutions
Residents of long-term care facilities should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Recommendations for Use for information about pneumococcal vaccination of individuals at increased risk of IPD. Refer to Immunization of Patients in Health Care Institutions in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of patients in health care institutions.
How Supplied/storage And Handling
Pneumovax 23 is supplied as follows:
NDC 0006-4943-00 a box of 10 single-dose vials, color coded with a purple cap and stripe on the vial labels and cartons.
NDC 0006-4837-03 a box of 10 single-dose, pre-filled Luer-Lok syringes with tip caps, color coded with a violet plunger rod and purple stripe on the syringe labels and cartons.
Storage and Handling
- Store at 2-8°C .
- All vaccine must be discarded after the expiration date.
The vial stoppers, syringe plunger stopper and syringe tip cap are not made with natural rubber latex.
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How Often Do I Need To Get The Pneumonia Vaccine
The pneumonia vaccine also known as the pneumococcal vaccine offers protection against several strains of bacteria that can cause pneumonia. There are two types of the vaccine, one of which is specifically designed for adults over the age of 65 and anyone particularly high-risk because of a long-term health condition. The other vaccine Prevnar 13 is available in our stores for adults aged 18 and over.*
Most adults getting the pneumonia vaccine will only need to get it once. Others who are high risk may need to get booster jabs every few years.
If youve never had the pneumonia vaccine, and you think you could benefit, you should check to see if youre eligible for it on the NHS. If not, you can book yours with us and have it in your local LloydsPharmacy.
Vaccines Recommended For Adults Age 65 And Older
Vaccines are an important step in protecting your health and the health of your family. Vaccines are particularly important for older adults. Risks to certain diseases are higher for this age group since it can be more difficult to fight off infections as your immune system naturally weakens as you get older.
These infections, such as flu, pneumonia, shingles, tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough and COVID-19, increase your risk for complications, which can lead to long-term illness and hospitalization.
There are five vaccines adults age 65 and older should consider to prevent certain diseases:
- Influenza vaccine
- Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine
- COVID-19 vaccine
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What Is A Pneumococcal Vaccine
A pneumococcal vaccine is an injection that can prevent pneumococcal disease. A pneumococcal disease is any illness that is caused by pneumococcal bacteria, including pneumonia. In fact, the most common cause of pneumonia is pneumococcal bacteria. This type of bacteria can also cause ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis.
Adults age 65 or older are amongst the highest risk groups for getting pneumococcal disease.
To prevent pneumococcal disease, there are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine .
Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People
In addition to the 3 doses for all children < 5 years of age, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in the following states and territories are recommended to receive an additional dose of 13vPCV at 6 months of age:
- Northern Territory
This is because of the higher risk of pneumococcal disease in these children.1
These children are also recommended to receive 2 doses of 23vPPV
- 1 dose at 4 years of age
- a 2nd dose at least 5 years later
This is because a considerable proportion of pneumococcal disease in these children is caused by serotypes that are present in 23vPPV13vPCV.
For children aged > 12 months who have not completed a full course of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the timing and number of further doses for catch-up vaccination depends on:
- the childs age
- any previous doses they received
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults without risk conditions for pneumococcal disease are recommended to receive:
- a dose of
- at least 5 years later
This is based on:
- the increased risk of pneumococcal disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, compared with non-Indigenous adults
- the high proportion of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by additional serotypes only in 23vPPV
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults who have previously received 23vPPV
- 12 months after their last 23vPPV
- dose, or 5 years after their previous 23vPPV dose, whichever is later. If they have already received at least 2 doses of 23vPPV
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Know The Facts About The Pneumonia Vaccine
Just as with a flu shot, and now the COVID-19 vaccines, some people believe that getting a pneumococcal vaccine will cause them to come down with the disease or experience long-term side effects.
This is absolutely not true, Dr. Suri says.
Not only will the pneumococcal vaccine help reduce the risk of contracting certain types of bacterial pneumonia, it also guards against serious consequences resulting from the flu and severe infections, such as .
For young children, older adults, smokers and those with other risk factors, the vaccine is a healthy choice to make.
I cant see any reason to avoid this vaccine and every reason to get it, she says.
Medical Conditions Resulting In High Risk Of Ipd
Table 1: Medical Conditions Resulting in High risk of IPD
IPD is more common in the winter and spring in temperate climates.
Spectrum of clinical illness
Although asymptomatic upper respiratory tract colonization is common, infection with S. pneumoniae may result in severe disease. IPD is a severe form of infection that occurs when S. pneumoniae invades normally sterile sites, such as the bloodstream or central nervous system. Bacteremia and meningitis are the most common manifestations of IPD in children 2 years of age and younger. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common presentation among adults and is a common complication following influenza. The case fatality rate of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is 5% to 7% and is higher among elderly persons. Bacterial spread within the respiratory tract may result in AOM, sinusitis or recurrent bronchitis.
Worldwide, pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 500,000 deaths among children aged less than 5 years are attributable to pneumococcal disease each year. In Canada, IPD is most common among the very young and adults over 65 years of age.
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How Do We Know The Vaccine Is Safe
All medicines are tested for safety and effectiveness by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency . The vaccine meets the high safety standards required for it to be used in the UK and other European countries. The vaccine has been given to millions of people worldwide.
Once they’re in use, the safety of vaccines continues to be monitored by the MHRA.
Babies And The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Babies are routinely vaccinated with a type of pneumococcal vaccine known as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as part of their childhood vaccination programme.
Babies born on or after 1 January 2020 have 2 injections, which are usually given at:
- 12 weeks old
- 1 year old
Babies born before this date will continue to be offered 3 doses, at 8 and 16 weeks and a booster at 1 year.
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Who Should Get The Vaccine
People over age 65. As you age, your immune system doesnât work as well as it once did. Youâre more likely to have trouble fighting off a pneumonia infection. All adults over age 65 should get the vaccine.
Those with weakened immune systems. Many diseases can cause your immune system to weaken, so itâs less able to fight off bugs like pneumonia.
If you have heart disease, diabetes, emphysema, asthma, or COPD , youâre more likely to have a weakened immune system, which makes you more likely to get pneumonia.
The same goes for people who receive chemotherapy, people who have had organ transplants, and people with HIV or AIDS.
People who smoke. If youâve smoked for a long time, you could have damage to the small hairs that line the insides of your lungs and help filter out germs. When theyâre damaged, they arenât as good at stopping those bad germs.
Heavy drinkers. If you drink too much alcohol, you may have a weakened immune system. Your white blood cells donât work as well as they do for people with a healthy immune system.
People getting over surgery or a severe illness. If you were in the hospital ICU and needed help breathing with a ventilator, youâre at risk of getting pneumonia. The same is true if youâve just had major surgery or if youâre healing from a serious injury. When your immune system is weak because of illness or injury or because itâs helping you get better from surgery, you canât fight off germs as well as you normally can.
When To Get The Vaccine
Thereâs no such thing as pneumonia season, like flu season. If you and your doctor decide that you need to have a pneumonia vaccine, you can get it done at any time of the year. If itâs flu season, you can even get a pneumonia vaccine at the same time that you get a flu vaccine, as long as you receive each shot in a different arm.
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Types Of Pneumonia Vaccine
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine also known as Prevenar 13 offers protection against 13 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. This type is given to young children as part of their routine NHS vaccinations. Its also available for adults under 65 through our vaccination service.
The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine also known as Pneumovax 23 offers protection against 23 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. This type is given to adults over 65 and anyone with a very high risk of pneumonia.
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Concomitant Administration With Other Vaccines
In a randomized clinical study, a reduced immune response to ZOSTAVAX® as measured by gpELISA was observed in individuals who received concurrent administration of Pneumovax 23 and ZOSTAVAX compared with individuals who received these vaccines 4 weeks apart. Consider administration of the two vaccines separated by at least 4 weeks.
Limited safety and immunogenicity data from clinical trials are available on the concurrent administration of Pneumovax 23 and vaccines other than ZOSTAVAX.
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How Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Work
There are currently two vaccines administered in the United States:
Who Needs Vaccination
Pneumonia vaccination is not recommended for everyone. The vaccines are primarily used in persons who are at increased risk of serious illness. These include:
- Infants and children as part of their routine vaccination schedule
- Persons over the age of 65
- Persons with compromised or weakened immune systems, including those with chronic illness such as HIV, heart disease, liver disease, kidney failure, and diabetesï»¿ï»¿
- Organ transplant recipients and person undergoing chemotherapy, both of whom have weakened immune systems and exposure to immune suppressive drugs
- Persons with chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ï»¿ï»¿
- Persons who smoke or are heavy drinkers
- Persons recovering from surgery or a serious illness
Vaccination is currently not recommended for persons between 18 and 64 who are healthy. The same applies to anyone who has had a prior allergic reaction to the vaccine or has a known allergy to any of the components of the vaccine.
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. Review of pneumococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present, as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious pneumococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is in limited use. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.
When Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Given
The pneumonia vaccine is not the same as the flu vaccine, as it doesnt need to be given at a certain time of year. Rather, it can be given at any time, as long as its safe for you to have it.
However, if youre in a high-risk group for pneumonia, you should get the vaccine as soon as possible to make sure youre protected.
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Pneumococcal Disease In Children
In children, the most common manifestation is bacteraemia without focus. This accounts for approximately 70% of IPD, followed by pneumonia with bacteraemia.
Meningitis is the least common but most severe category of IPD
Acute otitis media is the most common non-invasive manifestation of pneumococcal disease in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae is detected in 2855% of middle ear aspirates from children with acute otitis media.34,38,39
Pneumococcal disease in adults
In adults, pneumonia with bacteraemia is the most common manifestation of IPD
- more than one-third of all community-acquired pneumonia
- up to half of hospitalised pneumonia in adults
However, it is difficult to accurately determine the proportion attributable to pneumococci in cases of non-bacteraemic pneumonia.
Symptoms of pneumonia include:
- chest pain
What You Should Know About Pneumonia
Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs that typically stems from several kinds of germs, most often bacteria and viruses.
Symptoms can develop gradually or suddenly. They include:
- Chest pain.
- Loss of appetite.
Early detection is often challenging because many people with these symptoms assume they have a cold or the flu.
Its important to also note that the vaccine helps protect against some but not all bacterial pneumonia.
There are dozens of different types of bacterial pneumonia, says Dr. Suri. The vaccine will certainly reduce your risk of the most common bacterial pneumonia.
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Who Should Have The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Anyone can get a pneumococcal infection. But some people are at higher risk of serious illness, so it’s recommended they’re given the pneumococcal vaccination on the NHS.
- adults aged 65 or over
- children and adults with certain long-term health conditions, such as a serious heart or kidney condition
Babies are offered 2 doses of pneumococcal vaccine, at 12 weeks and at 1 year of age.
People aged 65 and over only need a single pneumococcal vaccination. This vaccine is not given annually like the flu jab.
If you have a long-term health condition you may only need a single, one-off pneumococcal vaccination, or a vaccination every 5 years, depending on your underlying health problem.
How Long Does A Pneumonia Shot Last
Streptococcus pneumoniaevaccinepneumoniaStreptococcus pneumoniae
- Younger than 2 years old: four shots
- 65 years old or older: two shots, which will last you the rest of your life
- Between 2 and 64 years old: between one and three shots if you have certain immune system disorders or if youre a smoker
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Who Should Get Pneumococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children younger than 2 years old and all adults 65 years or older. In certain situations, older children and other adults should also get pneumococcal vaccines. Below is more information about who should and should not get each type of pneumococcal vaccine.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement
The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .
For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.
NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.
Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.
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