What Is A Pneumococcal Vaccine
A pneumococcal vaccine is an injection that can prevent pneumococcal disease. A pneumococcal disease is any illness that is caused by pneumococcal bacteria, including pneumonia. In fact, the most common cause of pneumonia is pneumococcal bacteria. This type of bacteria can also cause ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis.
Adults age 65 or older are amongst the highest risk groups for getting pneumococcal disease.
To prevent pneumococcal disease, there are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine .
Should You Get A Flu Shot
In general, every person with diabetes needs a flu shot each year. Talk with your doctor about having a flu shot. Flu shots do not give 100% protection, but they do make it less likely for you to catch the flu for about six months.
For extra safety, it’s a good idea for the people you live with or spend a lot of time with to get a flu shot, too. You are less likely to get the flu if the people around you don’t have it.
The best time to get your flu shot is beginning in September. The shot takes about two weeks to take effect.
If youre sick , ask if you should wait until you are healthy again before having your flu shot. And don’t get a flu shot if you are allergic to eggs.
You are advised to continue to take the general precautions of preventing seasonal flu and other communicable illnesses and diseases:
- Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash. If you dont have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your elbow, not your hand.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs spread that way.
- Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
- If you get sick, stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.
How Long Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Last
For most adults, one dose of the pneumonia vaccine should last a lifetime. In other words, you wont usually need to get another dose. This makes it different to the flu vaccine, which is given every year.
For some people, boosters of the pneumonia vaccine will be needed. This will be the case for people who have underlying health conditions that make them high-risk for pneumonia and related conditions. Your doctor will let you know if you need another vaccine.
If youre somebody who needs top-ups of the pneumonia vaccine, youll be able to receive them for free on the NHS.
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This Infectious Disease Can Pose A Serious Health Risk For Those Age 65 And Older But Two Vaccines Can Offer Sound Protection
One of the leading health dangers for older adults is pneumonia. It is the most common cause of hospital admissions after childbirth. In fact, adults age 65 and older have a higher risk of death from pneumonia hospitalization than any other reason.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria, viruses, or other microbes. Most cases are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, and Legionella pneumophila. A similar inflammation of the lung, called pneumonitis, can be caused by an inhaled chemical and is more common in people who have had strokes and have difficulty swallowing. A physical exam, chest x-ray, and blood test can confirm a diagnosis.
Persons With Chronic Diseases
Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.
Asplenia or hyposplenia
Hyposplenic or asplenic individuals should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine, followed by a booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.
Chronic kidney disease and patients on dialysis
Individuals with chronic kidney disease should receive age appropriate pneumococcal vaccines. Children less than 18 years of age with chronic kidney failure or nephrotic syndrome, should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with chronic kidney failure should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with nephrotic syndrome should receive Pneu-C-13 and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Due to the decreased immunogenicity and efficacy of Pneu-P-23 vaccine in children and adults with chronic kidney failure, 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is recommended. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.
Chronic lung disease, including asthma
Chronic heart disease
Chronic liver disease
Endocrine and metabolic diseases
Non-malignant hematologic disorders
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When To Get The Vaccine
Thereâs no such thing as pneumonia season, like flu season. If you and your doctor decide that you need to have a pneumonia vaccine, you can get it done at any time of the year. If itâs flu season, you can even get a pneumonia vaccine at the same time that you get a flu vaccine, as long as you receive each shot in a different arm.
Vaccines To Help Prevent Pneumonia
Pneumococcal disease is a serious infection that spreads from person to person by air. It often causes pneumonia in the lungs and it can affect other parts of the body.
There are two pneumococcal vaccines: PPSV23 and PCV13. According to the CDC, adults who are age 65 and older should get the PPSV23 vaccine. Some older adults may also need the PCV13 vaccine. Talk with your health care professional to find out if you need both pneumococcal vaccines.
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What Are The Side Effects
Prior to its approval, Prevnar 20 was studied in six clinical trials. Across these studies, reported side effects were similar for all ages. Most of them were mild to moderate in severity. Like many other vaccines, pain at the injection site is reported as the most common side effect.
Additional common side effects of Prevnar 20 can include:
Injection site swelling
Although most of these side effects happened within 7 to 10 days of the shot, less than 2% of people experienced one or more serious adverse events within 6 months. However, it hasnt been confirmed that these events were due to the vaccine.
The safety of Prevnar 20 was studied in people who have no history of pneumococcal vaccination, in individuals who have previously received Prevnar 13, and in individuals who have previously received Pneumovax 23. No notable safety differences were seen between the vaccines.
Next, well discuss who should receive Prevnar 20.
Age Recommendations And Dosing
Prevnar 13 is approved for use in children 6 weeks and older, and the CDC recommends it for children younger than 2 years old and people 2 years or older with certain medical conditions. Its given into the muscle, and its a 4-dose series for children between 2 and 15 months of age. For children who dont receive the vaccine at this time, a catch-up schedule is available.
Prevnar 20 is currently approved for use in adults at least 18 years old, but official CDC recommendations havent been established yet. Its given as a single-dose injection into the muscle.
Pneumovax 23 is approved for use in children 2 years and older at higher risk of infection and adults at least 50 years old. However, the CDC recommends it for all adults 65 years or older, people 2 through 64 years with certain medical conditions, and adults 19 through 64 years who smoke cigarettes. Its a single-dose injection given into the muscle or skin, but additional doses may be recommended for some people.
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How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works
Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.
Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.
They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.
More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.
The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.
Common And Local Adverse Events
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
Studies of Pneu-C-13 vaccine indicated that irritability decreased appetite increased or decreased sleep and pain, swelling and redness at the injection site after the toddler dose and in older children, are common side effects. Low grade fever occurred in 20% to 30% or more of vaccine recipients. In adults over 50 years of age, the most commonly reported side effects included pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache and new onset of myalgia, with fever above 38Â°C occurring in approximately 3% of vaccine recipients.
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
Reactions to Pneu-P-23 vaccine are usually mild. Soreness, redness and swelling at the injection site occur in 30% to 60% of vaccine recipients and more commonly follow SC administration than IM administration. Occasionally, low grade fever may occur. Re-immunization of healthy adults less than 2 years after the initial dose is associated with increased injection site and systemic reactions. Studies have suggested that re-vaccination after an interval of at least 4 years is not associated with an increased incidence of adverse side effects. However, severe injection site reactions, including reports of injection site cellulitis and peripheral edema in the injected extremity, have been documented rarely with Pneu-P-23 vaccine in post-marketing surveillance, even with the first dose. Multiple re-vaccinations are not recommended refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.
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Vaccines For Children Program
The Vaccines for Children Program provides vaccines to children whose parents or guardians may not be able to afford them. A child is eligible if they are younger than 19 years old and meets one of the following requirements:
- American Indian or Alaska Native
If your child is VFC-eligible, ask if your doctor is a VFC provider. For help in finding a VFC provider near you, contact your state or local health departments VFC Program Coordinator or call CDC at 1-800-CDC-INFO .
Rotavirus Vaccine Given At 2 And 4 Months
What is rotavirus?
Rotavirus is a common infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is very contagious, spreading easily from children who are already infected to other infants, children and sometimes adults. Most children are infected with rotavirus at least once by five years of age. Serious but rare symptoms commonly seen in children less than two years of age include severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization.
Rotavirus infection is a major cause of visits to health care providers and hospital stays for infants and children under five years of age in Ontario. Deaths in Ontario due to rotavirus are rare.
Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.
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Who Should Get Vaccinated Against It
Three vaccines are now available to help prevent pneumococcal disease. Before the FDA approval of Prevnar 20, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of two other pneumococcal vaccines and . You can read more about them here.
The CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children under 2 years old and all adults at least 65 years old. Although pneumococcal disease can affect people of all ages, younger children and older adults are most at risk.
Depending on vaccination history and the presence of certain medical conditions, other people may also need to receive pneumococcal vaccinations. If you arent sure of your pneumococcal vaccination history, speak to your healthcare provider.
Who Is Recommended To Get Prevnar 20
Although adults ages 18 and older are eligible to receive Prevnar 20, its not yet certain how Prevnar 20 will be used alongside Prevnar 13 and Pneumovax 23.
The CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations on how to use vaccines. Although Prevnar 20 was approved last week, the CDC and ACIP have yet to incorporate Prevnar 20 into its overall recommendations.
According to Pfizer, ACIP is expected to meet in to discuss updated recommendations on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults.
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Adults At High Risk Of Ipd
Adults with immunocompromising conditions resulting in high risk of IPD, except HSCT, should receive 1 dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine followed at least 8 weeks later by 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. The dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine should be administered at least 1 year after any previous dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.
Immunocompetent adults with conditions or lifestyle factors resulting in high risk of IPD should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. One dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is also recommended for all adults who are residents of long-term care facilities and should be considered for individuals who use illicit drugs.
Some experts also suggest a dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine, followed by Pneu-P-23 vaccine, for immunocompetent adults with conditions resulting in high risk of IPD as this may theoretically improve antibody response and immunologic memory. However, Pneu-P-23 vaccine is the vaccine of choice for these individuals, and if only one vaccine can be provided, it should be Pneu-P-23 vaccine, because of the greater number of serotypes included in the vaccine.
Adults at highest risk of IPD should also receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.
Table 4 – provides recommended schedules for adult immunization with pneumococcal vaccines.
The Pneumonia Vaccine Explained
While pneumonia is usually mild, it can have deadly consequences for portions of the population, especially people over the age of 65. In fact, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria that causes pneumococcal disease, is the No. 1 cause of pneumonia worldwide.
The vaccine indirectly protects adults by stopping children from spreading the bacteria
“But this bacteria doesn’t just cause pneumonia. It’s a nasty human pathogen that can invade the brain and bloodstream, leading to ear infections, sinus infections, even meningitis,” says Dr. Michael Ben-Aderet, associate medical director of Hospital Epidemiology at Cedars-Sinai.
“It can make people very sick, and it’s a key cause of death among the elderly.”
In 2017, an estimated 3,600 people died from invasive pneumococcal disease in the U.S. alone.
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Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
Pneumococcal vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines, with the exception of a different formulation of pneumococcal vaccine . There should be at least an 8 week interval between a dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a subsequent dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, and at least a 1 year interval between a dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine and a subsequent dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine refer to Immunocompromised persons for information regarding administration of pneumococcal vaccines to HSCT recipients. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections. Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
Flu Vaccines For Older Adults
Flu short for influenza is a virus that can cause fever, chills, sore throat, stuffy nose, headache, and muscle aches. Flu is very serious when it gets in your lungs. Older adults are at a higher risk for developing serious complications from the flu, such as pneumonia.
The flu is easy to pass from person to person. The virus also changes over time, which means you can get it again. To ensure flu vaccines remain effective, the vaccine is updated every year.
Everyone age 6 months and older should get an annual flu vaccine, but the protection from a flu vaccine can lessen with time, especially in older adults. Still, you are less likely to become seriously ill or hospitalized because of the flu if you get the vaccine. A flu vaccine is especially important if you have a chronic health condition such as heart disease or diabetes.
You should get your vaccine ideally by the end of October each year so you are protected when the flu season starts. It takes at least two weeks for the vaccine to be effective. However, if you have not received your flu vaccine by the end of October, its not too late as flu season typically peaks in December or January. As long as the flu virus is spreading, getting vaccinated will help protect you.
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How Does It Work
Prevnar 20 is a conjugate vaccine. This means that it contains pieces of sugar-like substances called polysaccharides that typically coat the bacteria but also hide it from our immune system. The vaccine uses only a certain portion of the bacteria not the bacteria itself so its unable to cause an infection.
This conjugate vaccine uses 20 slightly different polysaccharides that are specific to the 20 serotypes and attaches them to proteins that our immune systems can recognize. If the bacteria enters the body after the vaccination is administered, the immune system can recognize the polysaccharide molecule and release antibodies to fight the bacteria before it causes an infection.
Who Should Not Get Pneumovax 23 Or Prevnar 13
Children younger than 2 years of age should not get Pneumovax 23. In addition, while there is no evidence that Pneumovax 23 is harmful to pregnant women or their babies, as a precaution, women who need Pneumovax 23 should get it before becoming pregnant, if possible.
Before you get either Prevnar 13 or Pneumovax 23, tell your health provider if you have had any life-threatening allergic reaction to or have a severe allergy to pneumococcal vaccines or any vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid . Also, tell your health provider if you are not feeling well. If you have a minor illness like a cold, you can probably still get vaccinated, but if you have a more serious illness, you should probably wait until you recover.
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