What Is The Pneumonia Vaccine
There are currently two types of pneumococcal vaccines that cover different strains of a common type of bacteria that can lead to pneumonia. This type of bacteria poses risks for young children but can also be risky for those who are older or have compromised immune systems.
The two vaccines are:
- pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
- pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
According to recent data, the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend that people who are 65 and older should get the Pneumovax 23 shot.
However, both vaccines may be needed in certain circumstances when there is greater risk. These situations can include:
- if you live in a nursing home or long-term care facility
- if you live in an area with many unvaccinated children
- if you travel to areas with a large population of unvaccinated children
Here is a comparison between the two available vaccines:
|Protects against 13 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae||Protects against 23 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae|
|No longer routinely given to people 65 and older||One dose for anyone 65 years and older|
|Only given if you and your doctor decide it is needed to protect you from risk, then one dose for those 65 and older||If you were already given PCV13, you should get PCV23 at least 1 year later|
Pneumonia vaccines can prevent serious infections from the most common strains of pneumococcal bacteria.
Possible side effects
Most Common Side Effects
Having concerns about side effects is only natural. Here are the common ones that some children have experienced with PREVNAR 13Â®.
- In children 6 weeks through 17 years, the most common side effects were tenderness, redness, or swelling at the injection site, irritability, decreased appetite, decreased or increased sleep, and fever.
- The most commonly reported serious adverse events in infants and toddlers were bronchiolitis , gastroenteritis , and pneumonia .
Talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of receiving the PREVNAR 13Â® vaccine.
Please see additional side effects and Important Safety Information.
Adults At High Risk Of Ipd
Adults with immunocompromising conditions resulting in high risk of IPD, except HSCT, should receive 1 dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine followed at least 8 weeks later by 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. The dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine should be administered at least 1 year after any previous dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.
Immunocompetent adults with conditions or lifestyle factors resulting in high risk of IPD should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. One dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is also recommended for all adults who are residents of long-term care facilities and should be considered for individuals who use illicit drugs.
Some experts also suggest a dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine, followed by Pneu-P-23 vaccine, for immunocompetent adults with conditions resulting in high risk of IPD as this may theoretically improve antibody response and immunologic memory. However, Pneu-P-23 vaccine is the vaccine of choice for these individuals, and if only one vaccine can be provided, it should be Pneu-P-23 vaccine, because of the greater number of serotypes included in the vaccine.
Adults at highest risk of IPD should also receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.
Table 4 – provides recommended schedules for adult immunization with pneumococcal vaccines.
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Medical Conditions Resulting In High Risk Of Ipd
Table 1: Medical Conditions Resulting in High risk of IPD
IPD is more common in the winter and spring in temperate climates.
Spectrum of clinical illness
Although asymptomatic upper respiratory tract colonization is common, infection with S. pneumoniae may result in severe disease. IPD is a severe form of infection that occurs when S. pneumoniae invades normally sterile sites, such as the bloodstream or central nervous system. Bacteremia and meningitis are the most common manifestations of IPD in children 2 years of age and younger. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common presentation among adults and is a common complication following influenza. The case fatality rate of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is 5% to 7% and is higher among elderly persons. Bacterial spread within the respiratory tract may result in AOM, sinusitis or recurrent bronchitis.
Worldwide, pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 500,000 deaths among children aged less than 5 years are attributable to pneumococcal disease each year. In Canada, IPD is most common among the very young and adults over 65 years of age.
Persons With Chronic Diseases
Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.
Asplenia or hyposplenia
Hyposplenic or asplenic individuals should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine, followed by a booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.
Chronic kidney disease and patients on dialysis
Individuals with chronic kidney disease should receive age appropriate pneumococcal vaccines. Children less than 18 years of age with chronic kidney failure or nephrotic syndrome, should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with chronic kidney failure should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with nephrotic syndrome should receive Pneu-C-13 and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Due to the decreased immunogenicity and efficacy of Pneu-P-23 vaccine in children and adults with chronic kidney failure, 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is recommended. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.
Chronic lung disease, including asthma
Chronic heart disease
Chronic liver disease
Endocrine and metabolic diseases
Non-malignant hematologic disorders
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Tips To Help Your Little One Feel More Comfortable With Their Shots
- Distract and comfort your baby by cuddling, singing, or talking softly.
- Smile and make eye contact to reassure your baby that everythingâs OK.
- Have your baby hold a favorite toy or blanket.
- Ask if you can hold your baby on your lap, then gently rub his or her back during the vaccination.
When it comes to protecting your child from invasive pneumococcal disease , every dose of PREVNAR 13Â® is important. So is every question.
Why are vaccines important?
Thanks to vaccines, widespread epidemics of illnesses such as smallpox, polio, diphtheria, measles, rubella, and mumps â devastating childhood disease that were once serious threats to little ones in this country â are mostly a thing of the past. But deadly diseases do still exist. Vaccines are one of the best ways to keep your baby healthy and help prevent diseases that have been under control for years from becoming epidemics.
Children under 2 are at a higher risk for getting certain vaccine-preventable diseases because their immune systems arenât fully developed. By vaccinating them, you can help protect them from getting sick. But for vaccines to continue to help protect children, children have to be vaccinated. As a parent, thatâs where you come in.
Iâve never heard of invasive pneumococcal disease. Should I be concerned?
How does invasive pneumococcal disease spread?
How can I protect my baby against invasive pneumococcal disease?
What is PREVNAR 13Â®?
Medicare Coverage Of The Tdap Shot
Distinct from the flu and pneumonia shots, which are covered by the plan B as a rule, the TDAP vaccine is usually attributed Medicare Plan D. That being said, if you benefit from Original Medicare which entails part A and part B of the plan this means that you dont benefit from part D automatically.
There is another scenario in which you can get the TDAP shot namely via a Medicare Advantage plan. Such a plan should also offer coverage for prescription drugs. In many cases, such plans offer a handful of additional perks, which dont fall under plan A and plan B: wellness programs, routine visits to vision or dental checkups, so on and so forth. They also incorporate prescription drug coverage, referred to as Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug plans.
Hence, it all comes down to this: the type of Medicare insurance plan you have at the time being. Each plan comes with individual specifications and rules regarding the shots you can take.
This is why it is highly advisable to get more information regarding the specifications of your Medicare plan. By doing so, you will know if you should choose to pay a premium in order to expand your Medicare insurance so that you could benefit from a range of various perks. Of course, this is entirely up to you, your health condition, budget, and other criteria.
On a final note, many health specialists recommend taking at least a TDAP booster to prevent these diseases from leading to unwanted complications.
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How Often Should Seniors Get Pneumonia Vaccine
All adults 65 years of age or older should receive one dose of PPSV23 5 or more years after any prior dose of PPSV23, regardless of previous history of vaccination with pneumococcal vaccine. No additional doses of PPSV23 should be administered following the dose administered at 65 years of age or older.
Patients In Health Care Institutions
Residents of long-term care facilities should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Recommendations for Use for information about pneumococcal vaccination of individuals at increased risk of IPD. Refer to Immunization of Patients in Health Care Institutions in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of patients in health care institutions.
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Private Insurance Vaccine Coverage
All Health Insurance Marketplaceexternal icon plans and most other private insurance plans must cover the following list of vaccines without charging a copayment or coinsurance when provided by an in-network provider. This is true even for patients who have not met a yearly deductible. Doses, recommended ages, and recommended populations for these vaccines vary:
A new recommendation for serogroup B meningococcal vaccination of those age 16 through 23 years was published in the MMWR dated October 23, 2015. Health plans are required to cover new vaccine recommendations without cost-sharing in the next plan year that occurs one year after this date. Patients should check with their insurance provider for details on whether there is any cost to them for this vaccine.
- Hepatitis A
- Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis
Check with your patients insurance provider for details of coverage. Under the Affordable Care Act, insurance plans that cover children now allow parents to add or keep adult children on their health insurance policy until they turn 26 years old.
Vaccinate On Time Follow The Cdc
The recommended schedule is designed to protect your baby by providing immunity early in life, before they are exposed to life-threatening diseases. Because of routine immunization, the rates of vaccine-preventable diseases have been dramatically reduced in the United States and in many other parts of the world.
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Does Medicare Pay For The Pneumonia Shot
En español | Yes, Medicare Part B pays for this shot. This shot helps prevent pneumonia. Most people only need this shot once in their lifetime. Talk with your health care provider to see if you should get the shot. You will not have to pay a deductible or copayment to receive this shot as long as you see doctors or pharmacists who accept Medicare.
What Is Prevnar 13
Prevnar 13 is a vaccine that protects against pneumococcal disease.
Streptococcus pneumonia is a bacterium that can cause various infections, ranging from mild ear and sinus infections to dangerous pneumonia and bloodstream infections.
Many strains of these bacteria exist, and Prevnar 13 protects against 13 of the most common. The Pneumovax 23 vaccine protects against 12 of the same strains as Prevnar 13, plus 11 additional ones.
CDC data show that Prevnar 13 is effective in protecting people aged 65 years and over against pneumococcal disease.
Initially, in 2014, the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended routine Prevnar 13 vaccination ahead of Pneumovax 23 vaccination a year later for those aged 65 years and over.
In 2019, the ACIP changed the recommendation to a single dose of Pneumovax 23 because the routine vaccination of children has caused a decline in the bacterial strains that commonly cause disease.
However, the ACIP recognized that some older people should still receive Prevnar 13, including those who:
- live in a nursing home or another long-term care facility
- have cochlear implants
- are immunocompromised and have never received a pneumonia vaccine
- have a cerebrospinal fluid leak
- visit areas where doctors do not routinely vaccinate children with Prevnar 13
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Does Medicare Pay For The Pneumonia Vaccine
Medicare Part B will typically cover your first pneumococcal shot at any time. It will typically cover your second shot as long as it’s given at least one year after your first shot.
Medicare Advantage plans are required by law to offer at least the same benefits as Original Medicare .
This means that if Medicare Part B covers your Prevnar 13 shot, so would a Medicare Advantage plan.
Are Vaccinations Required For Students To Go Back To School
Many school systems now require 5th ad 6th graders to receive a Tdap immunization. Meningitis vaccinations are also required by some colleges before incoming freshman are allowed to move into dorms or attend classes. To find out what vaccines are required for your individual situation, please contact your local school district or specific college.
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Adults Aged 65 Years And Older
A randomized placebo-controlled trial of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was conducted in about 84,500 adults aged 65 years and older, with no particular risk factors. Four years on average after vaccination, there was no reduction in either mortality or the overall incidence of community-acquired pneumonia. It was necessary to vaccinate about 1,000 individuals in order to prevent 1 case of vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia during the 4-year follow-up period .
In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updated the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . PCV13 vaccination is no longer routinely recommended for all adults aged 65 years and older. Instead, shared clinical decision-making for PCV13 use is recommended for persons in this age group who do not have an immunocompromising condition, CSF leak, or cochlear implant and who have not previously received PCV13. If a decision to administer PCV13 is made, it should be administered before PPSV23. The recommended intervals between pneumococcal vaccines remain unchanged for adults without an immunocompromising condition, CSF leak, or cochlear implant . PCV13 and PPSV23 should not be co-administered. ACIP continues to recommend PCV13 in series with PPSV23 for adults aged 19 years with immunocompromising conditions, CSF leaks, or cochlear implants .
The Above Policy Is Based On The Following References:
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Getting Vaccines At Network Pharmacies
You can get some covered vaccines for $0 at participating network pharmacies. To find a pharmacy that participates in the vaccine program:
Be sure to call the pharmacy first to:
- Verify the days and times you can come in for a vaccine.
- See if there are any restrictions.
- Make sure the pharmacy has the vaccine you need.
- Make sure a pharmacist gives the vaccines and not a provider to avoid potential out-of-pocket costs.
What Are The Costs
Medicare Part B covers 100% of the costs for Prevnar 13. Individuals do not pay a copayment or coinsurance, as long as they use a Medicare-approved provider.
The Part B deductible does not apply to the Prevnar 13 and Pneumovax 23 vaccinations. Therefore, the beneficiary should not receive a bill or have to pay any costs upfront.
The only cost is the Part B monthly premium. In 2021, the standard premium is $148.50.
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Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement
The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .
For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.
NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.
Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.