Managing Diabetes During Your Hospital Stay
The way your diabetes is managed at home may be very different from how it is managed in the hospital. One good example is the use of regular insulin given by IV, rather than the other types available. Most healthcare providers, especially in the time immediately surrounding surgery, will not want oral medications or long-acting types of insulin to be given.
Regular insulin works within a short time, allowing the staff to have a much better idea of your glucose level. This allows them to treat elevated levels, or low levels immediately. In some cases, blood glucose testing will be done as frequently as every two hours, with medication coverage provided as needed.
Your glucose level may be maintained in a much narrower window during your hospital stay. This is because studies have shown that the better-controlled blood glucose levels are, the faster the healing. If you are going to have meals during your stay at the hospital you can expect to receive diabetic meals, which are designed specifically by the nutrition staff.
If you are having outpatient surgery or have to report for your surgery that morning, consider bringing along your glucose meter. If the surgery is delayed for any reason, you will be able to test your glucose level as needed and notify staff as appropriate.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hyperglycemia
The signs and symptoms include the following:
- High blood sugar
- High levels of sugar in the urine
- Frequent urination
- Increased thirst
Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood sugar often. Ask your doctor how often you should check and what your blood sugar levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating high blood sugar early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia.
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Smoking Damages Your Eyes
People with diabetes also have a higher risk of several eye diseases, including cataracts and glaucoma. Poorly controlled diabetes can also lead to an eye condition called diabetic retinopathy. Smoking can accelerate the development of diabetic retinopathy and make it worse. This can eventually lead to blindness.
Study Design And Patient Selection
The study was conducted at the University-Hospital Policlinico Umberto I, a large 1100-bed teaching hospital in Rome. Patients with DM admitted to medical wards with diagnosis of community-onset pneumonia or with diagnosis other than pneumonia through the Emergency Department from January 2012 to December 2013 were consecutively recruited and prospectively followed up. Patients fulfilling the following criteria were enrolled in the study after giving written informed consent: age 18 years or over previous diagnosis of type 2 DM defined as fasting plasma glucose levels 126mg/dL or HbA1C 6.5% or 2-hour plasma levels 200mg/dL after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test or random plasma glucose 200mg/dL in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis or antidiabetic ongoing therapy. Diagnosis of pneumonia was performed if the following criteria were satisfied: signs or symptoms suggesting pneumonia: presence of rales, rhonchi, bronchial breath sounds, fever , tachycardia, chills, dyspnea, coughing , or chest pain and presence of new consolidation on chest X-ray.
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What Was Our Selection Criteria For The 3 Best Diabetes Programs
Pneumococcal Vaccine In Diabetes: Relevance In India
Abstract Currently we have more than 65 million Diabetes patients in India with estimated 80 million prediabetics. Diabetes is a immunologically vulnerable population to develop all types of microbial infections. Pneumoccocal infections do have a substantial morbidity and mortality burden in the community. India has a large geriatric pool now which has substantially increased pneumococcal disease burden. Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for pneumococcal infection and predisposes individuals to nasopharyngeal colonization with the pneumococcus which is associated with invasive infection. In diabetics who are elderly, with chronic kidney or pulmonary disease and long standing duration of the disease with poor glycemic control are the highest risk group susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease. With now availibilty of Pneumoccal vaccine in India, now it may be an preventive option which can be offered. Most global organisations recommend pneumococcal vaccination to diabetics.Continue reading > >
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Questions To Ask Your Surgeon About Your Diabetes
Talk to your surgeon to find get answers about your care. Ask these questions:
- Who will manage my diabetes during my hospital stay, the surgeon, my endocrinologist, my family healthcare provider, a hospitalist?
- Who will manage my diabetes during the surgery?
- Should I take my insulin the morning of the surgery?
- Should I take my nighttime dose of insulin?
- What would you like me to do if I have an episode high blood glucose the morning of surgery?
- When should I have my last meal/fluid prior to surgery?
- If my blood sugar is low, what can I do about it that won’t complicate my surgery?
- Should oral diabetes medication be held or taken?
What You Should Know About Cold And Flu Medicines
The main problem for people with diabetes is that some cold and flu drugs, such as cough syrups or liquid medicines, have sugar in them. Read the ingredients label carefully. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to recommend over-the-counter drugs that are safe for you. Keep those product names handy for future reference.
If you have high blood pressure, avoid any cold medicine that contains , which can raise it even more.
DonÃ¢â¬â¢t give cold and flu medicines to a child younger than 2, whether they have diabetes or not, because of the risk of serious side effects.
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Context: A Growing Issue
In recent years the arrival of innovative insulin delivery devices means more people with diabetes have been able to find an insulin pen that suits their needs, reducing the number of people requiring pre-loaded insulin syringes.
However, there remains a small number of people who will not or cannot use an insulin pen for a variety of reasons: poor manual dexterity visual impairment an inability to find a pen device that suits their needs or a reluctance to make the change from the standard insulin injection syringe they are familiar with .
As a result, these patients will be unable to autonomously inject once or twice a day and, consequently, will require nursing support to pre-load the insulin syringes they use in order to maintain their independence. The RCN is aware that the potential number of people requiring such support in the community is likely to increase for two reasons:
- the number of people with Type 2 diabetes that require insulin treatment is growing: over the past two decades the number of people with diabetes in the UK has more than doubled, from 1.4 million in 1996 to 4.5 million in 2016
- Diabetes UK estimates that by 2025, 5.2 million people will have diabetes: most of these cases will be Type 2 diabetes because of the ageing population and the rapidly rising number of overweight people .
Why Pneumonia Is Dangerous For Diabetics
Pneumonia is nothing to ignore.
Summer will soon wind to a close, bringing with it an onslaught of golden-red leaves, cooler temperatures, and impaired immunity. As seasons change, immune responses fail to react as quickly and effectively as normal. This brings about a steady march of colds, the flu, and other bugs, including pneumonia.
In a healthy individual, pneumonia is not usually a matter of concern. Although it may be irritating and set you back for a couple of weeks, it is not typically a dangerous condition. Paired with diabetes, however, pneumonia has the potential to wreak havoc on your body.
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How Do You Catch Tuberculosis
The bacteria that cause tuberculosis is very resilient and can survive for an exceptionally long time outside of the body. This means it can live on surfaces for a long time, such as on handles on public transport or in public restrooms.
It can also be passed through the air, and is often inhaled as miniscule droplets that someone infected with the bacteria has sneezed or breathed out.
Avoiding Colds And The Flu
Make sure you and your family members wash your hands regularly. There’s no vaccine against colds, but your best move is to get a flu shot every year. The CDC recommends that for everyone age 6 months and older, so if you have a child with diabetes, make sure that they get vaccinated, too.
A flu vaccine can prevent many types of flu or keep flu viruses from making you so ill. September may be the best month to get this vaccine because it protects you for about 6 months. But you can get a flu shot at any time during flu season.
Ask family members, co-workers, and close friends to get the vaccine, too. You’re less likely to get the flu if those around you don’t have it.
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Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes
It is possible for a person to initially control the symptoms of type 2 diabetes by following a healthy diet, taking regular exercise and keeping their blood glucose levels within an agreed target range. Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition so they may eventually need to take diabetes medication which will usually be in tablet form. A treatment programme will be tailored to suit the person’s needs by the diabetes team and will typically include one or a combination of the following:
- changing to a healthier diet
- medication such as metformin
- injectable GLP-1
- insulin therapies.
Keeping blood glucose levels under control is vital in reducing the risk of diabetes complications. If a person is overweight, weight loss can often help to reduce the extent of diabetes symptoms. Type 2 diabetes is effectively controlled when a person is involved in the management of their own programme of treatment. Effective ‘self-management’ is essential to successfully achieving their healthy targets for HbA1c, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. A person with type 2 diabetes may need medication that reduces high levels of blood glucose. In the first instance this will usually be glucose-lowering tablets and it may also include injectable insulin. Some oral medications for lowering blood glucose levels can cause hypoglycaemia for example, Gliclazide, Glipizide and Glimpiride.
Facts About Diabetes And Covid
Disclosures: We were unable to process your request. Please try again later. If you continue to have this issue please contact .Susan WeinerStephen W. Ponder
Susan Weiner, MS, RDN, CDCES, FADCES, talks with Stephen W. Ponder, MD, FAAP, CDCES, about the effects of COVID-19 infection and vaccination for people with diabetes.
Weiner: We know people with diabetes are at higher risk for severe illness with COVID-19. Can they lower their diabetes-related risk?
Ponder: The same steps used by others to reduce the risk of COVID infection applies to persons with diabetes even more so. The basics: Masking, social distancing, avoiding large crowds and frequent hand-washing are vital to lowering risk for infection. A medical mask or N95 quality mask is more useful than a cloth mask if someone must go into risky areas. But keep in mind that friends and family members can also transmit the infection. Around our inner circle, there is always a greater tendency to let our guard down.
Isolation and hygiene measures, while essential, are not enough. Immunization with either the Moderna or the Pfizer vaccine, plus a later booster, provides the best proven method to lower risks for serious illness or death from COVID-19. Getting boosted with the non-original vaccine brand is a clever idea.
Weiner: Do COVID vaccines affect blood glucose levels?
Weiner: How do you discuss COVID vaccines with someone who may be reluctant to get one?
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Differences Between Those Patients With Or Without Diabetes
Demographic characteristics and comorbidities of diagnosis of CAP in patients with diabetes and in patients without diabetes are shown in Table in Appendix. In patients who have diagnosis of CAP, there was a significant male predominance . Generally, patients with diabetes and CAP were significantly older than patients without diabetes . An 86.1% of the diabetic patients had developed CAP while in non-diabetic patients a 50.2% have had an episode of CAP and had more coexisting chronic medical conditions and lifestyle risk factors. Specifically, diabetic patients with CAP had higher prevalence of heart disease , kidney disease ,), COPD , CVA , anaemia , arthrosis , dementia , liver disease , depression , dysphagia . Tobacco exposure , dental problems , alcoholism , and social problems were lifestyle factors more prevalent in those patients with diabetes and CAP.
Contrary, eating disorder and HIV were more prevalent in non-diabetic patients. There are no statistical significant differences between diabetic and no diabetic CAP cases regarding to medical conditions arthritis, asthma, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.
In non-diabetic patients who develop CAP a 21.1% do not have any other risk factor associated and 31.3% had one more risk factor. In diabetic patients with CAP usually have 2 or more other risk factors associated.
Wearable Glucose Monitoring Sensors
There are two types of wearable glucose monitoring technologies intermittently scanned flash glucose monitoring and continuous glucose monitoring which are described in this section. They are only funded by the NHS for people with type 1 diabetes who meet NHS England criteria.
Healthcare professionals who will be working with flash and continuous glucose monitoring are directed to these webinars. It is important you are able to help your patients access wearable glucose monitoring devices appropriately, interpret their data and improve their glycaemic outcomes.
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Pneumonia: A Brief Overview
Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs, which can cause a host of symptoms, including difficulty breathing, coughing, fever, chills, chest pain, and nausea. In an infected patient, the normally clear sacs of the lungs are filled with fluid. The condition has both a viral and bacterial origin, with viral pneumonia typically carrying fewer symptoms and clearing up more quickly than a bacterial infection.
A consistent bout of pneumonia can occur with both viral and bacterial infections, which is typically called walking pneumonia. The illness can be contracted via work or school, or can be caught in a medical setting.
Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia
Hospital discharge databases in Aarhus and North Jutland counties record all hospitalizations since 1977, including dates of admission and discharge, and up to 20 discharge diagnoses, coded by physicians according to the ICD-10 during the study period and ICD-8 earlier. We identified all adult patients with the following first-time discharge diagnoses: pneumonia , legionellosis , and ornithosis . We excluded patients who lived in the counties < 1 year before the admission date . Our study cohort thus comprised 29,900 patients with pneumonia, including 99 with legionellosis and 14 with ornithosis.
We were able to assess pneumonia severity among the North Jutland County patients through linkage with a laboratory database, which stores records on all specimens sent by hospitals and practitioners, including the exact time of blood sample collection. Laboratory data were unavailable for the Aarhus County subcohort. We obtained the first laboratory results available on the admission day or the following day.
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Smoking And Diabetes: 4 Smoking
What are the risks of smoking?
Youve probably heard the grim statistics a million times over. Even if you dont know all the numbers, you likely know that smoking is bad for your health. It has a negative effect on every organ in your body. It raises your risk of potentially fatal diseases, such as heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , and many types of cancer.
As bad as smoking is for the average person, its even worse if you have diabetes. You already have a condition that affects many parts of your body. When you add smoking to the mix, it raises your risk of health complications even more.
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