Other Methods Of Manufacture
Methods of vaccine generation that bypass the need for eggs include the construction of influenza virus-like particles . VLP resemble viruses, but there is no need for inactivation, as they do not include viral coding elements, but merely present antigens in a similar manner to a virion. Some methods of producing VLP include cultures of Spodoptera frugiperdaSf9 insect cells and plant-based vaccine production . There is evidence that some VLPs elicit antibodies that recognize a broader panel of antigenically distinct viral isolates compared to other vaccines in the hemagglutination-inhibition assay .
A gene-based DNA vaccine, used to prime the immune system after boosting with an inactivated H5N1 vaccine, underwent clinical trials in 2011.
On November 20, 2012, Novartis received FDA approval for the first cell-culture vaccine. In 2013, the recombinant influenza vaccine, Flublok, was approved for use in the United States.
On September 17, 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for Supemtek, a quadrivalent influenza vaccine . The applicant for this medicinal product is Sanofi Pasteur. Supemtek was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2020.
Who Shouldn’t Get The Pneumonia Vaccine
If you don’t meet the recommendations for the pneumonia vaccine, you really don’t need to get it, pulmonary critical care expert Reynold Panettieri, MD, director of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Science at Rutgers University, tells Health. “It’s a risk-benefit ratio,” he explains. “If you’re under 65 and are otherwise healthy, your likelihood of developing pneumococcal pneumonia is unlikely,” he says.
But there are some people who explicitly shouldn’t get the vaccines, per the CDC. Those include:
- People who have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to PCV13, PPSV23, an early pneumococcal conjugate vaccine called PCV7, the DTaP vaccine, or any parts of these vaccines. Talk to your doctor if you’re unsure.
- People who are currently ill.
Quadrivalent Vaccines For Seasonal Flu
A quadrivalent flu vaccine administered by nasal mist was approved by the FDA in March 2012. Fluarix Quadrivalent was approved by the FDA in December 2012.
In 2014, the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization published a review of quadrivalent influenza vaccines.
Starting with the 2018-2019 influenza season most of the regular-dose egg-based flu shots and all the recombinant and cell-grown flu vaccines in the United States are quadrivalent. In the 2019â2020 influenza season all regular-dose flu shots and all recombinant influenza vaccine in the United States are quadrivalent.
In November 2019, the FDA approved Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent for use in the United States starting with the 2020-2021 influenza season.
In February 2020, the FDA approved Fluad Quadrivalent for use in the United States. In July 2020, the FDA approved both Fluad and Fluad Quadrivalent for use in the United States for the 2020â2021 influenza season.
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Unknown Or Uncertain Vaccination Status
Vaccination providers frequently encounter persons who do not have adequate documentation of vaccinations. With the exception of influenza vaccine and PPSV23, providers should only accept written, dated records as evidence of vaccination self-reported doses of influenza vaccine and PPSV23 are acceptable . The rationale for acceptance for influenza vaccine is that the time period of recall is one year or less, making it very likely that correct recall will occur. The rationale for acceptance for PPSV23 is high frequency of vaccination leads to an increased rate of local reactions due to the reactogenicity of this vaccine. Although vaccinations should not be postponed if records cannot be found, an attempt to locate missing records should be made by contacting previous health care providers, reviewing state or local IISs, and searching for a personally held record. If records cannot be located within a reasonable time, these persons should be considered susceptible and started on the age-appropriate vaccination schedule. Serologic testing for immunity is an alternative to vaccination for certain antigens . However, commercial serologic testing might not always be sufficiently sensitive or standardized for detection of vaccine-induced immunity , and research laboratory testing might not be readily available.
Based on expert opinion.
TABLE 3-1. Recommended and minimum ages and intervals between vaccine doses,,,
When To Seek Emergency Medical Care
Anyone experiencing any of the following emergency warning signs of flu sickness, including people with asthma, should seek medical attention right away.
These lists are not all inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptom that is severe or concerning.
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Pneumococcal Diseases & Pneumonia Shots
There is a category of diseases called pneumococcal disease, of which pneumonia is one of the most dangerousthe other most dangerous being meningitis. People with diabetes are about three times more likely to die with flu and pneumococcal diseases, yet most dont get a simple, safe pneumonia shot.
Symptoms of pneumonia include:
Cough that can produce mucus that is gray, yellow, or streaked with blood Chest pain
Vaccinating People With Acute Illnesses
Every opportunity should be taken to provide needed vaccinations. The decision to delay vaccination because of a current or recent acute illness depends on the severity of the symptoms and their cause. Although a moderate or severe acute illness is sufficient reason to postpone vaccination, minor illnesses are not contraindications to vaccination.
Antimicrobial therapy is not a contraindication to vaccination, with several exceptions:
- Antibiotics may interfere with the response to oral typhoid vaccine and oral cholera vaccine.
- Antiviral agents active against herpes viruses may interfere with the response to varicella-containing vaccines.
- Antiviral agents active against influenza virus may interfere with the response to live attenuated influenza vaccine.
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Can You Get The Flu Vaccine And Covid
You can get a COVID-19 vaccine and a flu vaccine during the same visit, according to the CDC and based on extensive research with vaccines, Dr. Carney says. This gives people the opportunity to get vaccinated for both flu and COVID-19 at the same time, increasing their protection against both of these infections.
While there isnt a ton of information or research available on getting the COVID-19 and flu vaccines at the same time, the CDC makes their recommendation based on research into how people react to other combinations of vaccines. Its not clear if getting both vaccines at the same time will increase your chances of having side effects. Early research done in the U.K. of 670 adults shows that people who received their second COVID-19 vaccine and a flu vaccine at the same time were more likely to have local reactions, which includes side effects like arm pain and swelling near the injection site, compared to people who only got the COVID-19 vaccine, according to the November 2021 paper published in The Lancet2.
Secular Trends In The United States
Estimates of the incidence of pneumococcal disease have been made from a variety of population-based studies. More than 31,000 cases and more than 3,500 deaths from invasive pneumococcal disease are estimated to have occurred in the United States in 2017. More than half of these cases occurred in adults who had an indication for pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
Before routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2000, the burden of pneumococcal disease among children younger than age 5 years was significant. An estimated 17,000 cases of invasive disease occurred each year, of which 13,000 were bacteremia without a known site of infection and about 700 were meningitis. An estimated 200 children died every year as a result of invasive pneumococcal disease. Although not considered invasive disease, an estimated 5 million cases of acute otitis media occurred each year among children younger than 5 years of age. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children has resulted in a decrease in transmission of vaccine-type strains, thereby preventing pneumococcal disease among unvaccinated children and adults.
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Cdc Recommends Pneumococcal Vaccination For Young Children Older Adults And Certain Other People
CDC recommends PCV13 for
- All children younger than 2 years old
- People 2 years or older with certain medical conditions
In addition, adults 65 years or older may discuss and decide, with their clinician, to receive PCV13.
CDC recommends PPSV23 for
- All adults 65 years or older
- People 2 through 64 years old with certain medical conditions
- Adults 19 through 64 years old who smoke cigarettes
Some groups may need multiple or booster doses. Talk with your or your childs clinician about what is best for your specific situation.
Where Can I Find These Vaccines
Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.
PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.
Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.
When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.
What To Do If Your Child Is Unwell After The Vaccine
Its possible that your child may feel unwell after receiving a dose of the pneumococcal vaccine. Should this happen, there are ways to help ease their symptoms.
If your child has a fever, try to keep them cool. You can do this by providing cool liquids for them to drink and ensuring theyre not wearing too many layers.
Tenderness, redness or discoloration, and swelling at the site of the shot can be eased by applying a cool compress. To do this, wet a clean washcloth with cool water and place it gently on the affected area.
Symptoms like fever and pain at the site of the shot may be alleviated using over-the-counter medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen . Be sure to use the infant formulation and to carefully follow the dosing instructions on the product packaging.
Prior to being approved for use, the safety and effectiveness of all vaccines must be rigorously evaluated in clinical trials. Lets take a look at some of the research into the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines.
A evaluated the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine in children. It found that:
- The vaccine effectiveness of PCV13 against the 13 pneumococcal strains included in the vaccine was 86 percent.
- The vaccine effectiveness against pneumococcal disease due to any strain of S.pneumoniae was 60.2 percent.
- The effectiveness of PCV13 didnt differ significantly between children with and without underlying health conditions.
The CDC also notes that more than
You shouldnt get the PCV13 vaccine if youre:
What Are Common Flu Vaccine Side Effects To Expect
According to the CDC, you may experience short-lived, minor side effects of the flu shot or nasal spray vaccineas is the case with any vaccination or medication. You might think that side effects are a bad thing, but theyre actually signs that your immune system is responding and getting ready to protect you.
Heres how it works: The flu shot contains inactivated or incomplete strains of the influenza virus, while the nasal spray contains live attenuated strains. Neither form of the vaccine contains live flu viruses that can thrive in your body.
When you get any type of vaccine, the whole purpose is to expose your immune system to the virus, infectious disease expert Amesh A. Adalja, M.D., senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, tells SELF. Your immune system will start to rev up in response. These dead, partial, and weakened viruses are enough to provoke your immune system to develop antibodies to guard you against live and threatening flu viruses. It usually takes about two weeks for those to kick in and offer you protection, per the CDC.
Sometimes your immune system does this without causing noticeable symptoms, but other times, youll experience a few minor side effects as a result. Here are the most common ones you might experience:
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Types Of Flu Shots For People 65 And Older
People 65 years and older should get a flu shot, not a nasal spray vaccine. They can get any flu vaccine approved for use in their age group with no preference for any one vaccine over another. There are regular flu shots that are approved for use in people 65 years and older and there also are two vaccines designed specifically for this age group:
High Dose and Adjuvanted Flu Vaccine Side Effects
The high dose and adjuvanted flu vaccines may result in more of the temporary, mild side effects that can occur with standard-dose seasonal flu shots. Side effects can include pain, redness or swelling at the injection site, headache, muscle ache and malaise, and typically resolve with 1 to 3 days.
Surveillance And Reporting Of Pneumococcal Disease
Invasive pneumococcal disease is a notifiable condition in most states. For information on guidance for state and local health department staff who are involved in surveillance activities for vaccine-preventable diseases, please consult the Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.
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When Should You Schedule Your Vaccines
Older adults should get their flu shots by the end of October or ideally even sooner, particularly in light of the expected increase in demand for the 202021 winter season caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
In fact, given the concerns surrounding the pandemic, older adults should make sure they are up to date on all their vaccinations and any booster shots by the end of October, before winter sets in, Privor-Dumm says.
Still, its important to stagger your vaccinations, as getting them all done at one time could lead to complications. Talk to your doctor about setting up a vaccination schedule that works for you.
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Pneumonia Vaccine And Flu Vaccine
You can administer either pneumonia vaccine and the flu shot during the same visit, Dr. Horovitz says.
In general, the CDC recommends pneumonia vaccines for young kids, older adults, and certain at-risk people. Pneumovax protects against 23 common types of pneumococcus, and Prevnar protects against 13 types.
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When To See A Doctor
A person who is over 65 years of age should talk to their doctor about which pneumonia vaccine may be best for them. The doctor can help determine whether they should get the vaccination, which vaccination to get, and when to get it.
Parents and caregivers of young children should talk to a pediatrician about the schedule for the pneumonia vaccination. The pediatrician can also address any questions or concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccination.
A person does not need to see a doctor for mild reactions to the vaccine, such as tenderness at the injection site, fever, or fatigue.
However, if a person experiences any life threatening side effects, they should seek emergency help immediately.
Signs and symptoms of allergic reactions in children may include:
- respiratory distress, such as wheezing
The Percentage Of Adults Aged 65 And Over Who Ever Had A Shingles Vaccine Was Highest Among Women And Those Who Were Under Age 85 Non
- A little more than one-third of adults aged 65 and over have ever had a shingles vaccine .
- Among adults aged 65 and over, women were more likely than men to have had a shingles vaccine.
- Shingles vaccination coverage decreased with advancing age, from 35.9% among adults aged 65-74 to 28.7% among adults aged 85 and over.
- Among adults aged 65 and over, non-Hispanic white adults were more likely than other racial and ethnic groups to have had a shingles vaccine.
- Shingles vaccination coverage increased with family income among adults aged 65 and over, from 14.8% among those who were poor to 39.6% among those who were not poor.
Figure 4. Percentage of adults aged 65 and over who ever had a shingles vaccine, by selected demographics: United States, 2015
1Significantly different from women .2Significant linear trend by age group .3Significantly different from non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Asian persons .4Significantly different from Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian persons .5Significantly different from Hispanic persons .6Significant linear trend by poverty status .SOURCE: NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015 Family and Sample Adult component.
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