Children At High Risk Of Ipd
Infants at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine in a 4 dose schedule at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months followed by a dose at 12 to 15 months of age. Table 3 summarizes the recommended schedules for Pneu-C-13 vaccine for infants and children at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition by pneumococcal conjugate vaccination history.
In addition to Pneu-C-13 vaccine, children at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine at 24 months of age, at least 8 weeks after Pneu-C-13 vaccine. If an older child or adolescent at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition has not previously received Pneu-P-23 vaccine, 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine should be administered, at least 8 weeks after Pneu-C-13 vaccine. Children and adolescents at highest risk of IPD should receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.
Table 3: Recommended Schedules for Pneu-C-13 Vaccine for Children 2 months to less than 18 years of age, by Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination History
|Age at presentation for immunization||Number of doses of Pneu-C-7, Pneu-C-10 or Pneu-C-13 previously received|
Who Should Get The Vaccine
People over age 65. As you age, your immune system doesnât work as well as it once did. Youâre more likely to have trouble fighting off a pneumonia infection. All adults over age 65 should get the vaccine.
Those with weakened immune systems. Many diseases can cause your immune system to weaken, so itâs less able to fight off bugs like pneumonia.
If you have heart disease, diabetes, emphysema, asthma, or COPD , youâre more likely to have a weakened immune system, which makes you more likely to get pneumonia.
The same goes for people who receive chemotherapy, people who have had organ transplants, and people with HIV or AIDS.
People who smoke. If youâve smoked for a long time, you could have damage to the small hairs that line the insides of your lungs and help filter out germs. When theyâre damaged, they arenât as good at stopping those bad germs.
Heavy drinkers. If you drink too much alcohol, you may have a weakened immune system. Your white blood cells donât work as well as they do for people with a healthy immune system.
People getting over surgery or a severe illness. If you were in the hospital ICU and needed help breathing with a ventilator, youâre at risk of getting pneumonia. The same is true if youâve just had major surgery or if youâre healing from a serious injury. When your immune system is weak because of illness or injury or because itâs helping you get better from surgery, you canât fight off germs as well as you normally can.
Complications Of Pneumonia Caused By Covid
Because pneumonia causes the alveoli in the lungs to fill with pus and fluid, breathing can be painful and difficult.
Pneumonia can cause serious health complications, including:
Because COVID-19 attacks the lungs, it would make sense that having COVID-19 would cause lung complications. As of yet, not enough data are available to support this conclusion.
However, as noted above, research does show that COVID-19 can cause severe illness, including pneumonia that can be fatal. A 2020 study by the CDC found that among a group of people with COVID-19, about 70% had complications from pneumonia. Also, people with COVID-19 were twice as likely to get pneumonia compared to people with the flu.
Regarding long-lasting complications from COVID-19, it is still too soon to say for sure whether “long-haulers” are more likely to have underlying chronic medical conditions.
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The Pneumonia Vaccine Explained
While pneumonia is usually mild, it can have deadly consequences for portions of the population, especially people over the age of 65. In fact, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria that causes pneumococcal disease, is the No. 1 cause of pneumonia worldwide.
The vaccine indirectly protects adults by stopping children from spreading the bacteria
“But this bacteria doesn’t just cause pneumonia. It’s a nasty human pathogen that can invade the brain and bloodstream, leading to ear infections, sinus infections, even meningitis,” says Dr. Michael Ben-Aderet, associate medical director of Hospital Epidemiology at Cedars-Sinai.
“It can make people very sick, and it’s a key cause of death among the elderly.”
In 2017, an estimated 3,600 people died from invasive pneumococcal disease in the U.S. alone.
Can I Have The Vaccine If Im Experiencing Symptoms Of Long Covid
There isnt any evidence to suggest the vaccine will cause symptoms of long COVID to be made worse. If youve had a confirmed case of coronavirus you should still have the vaccine when you are invited to do so. Although it is hoped people who have had the virus will have some level of immunity, this isnt guaranteed, and it is thought that vaccine-induced immunity will be stronger.
You should still be vaccinated when you have the opportunity and are fully recovered. If you are experiencing persisting symptoms of COVID-19 and are offered the vaccine, you should speak to your health care professional. Having persisting symptoms should not stop you having the COVID-19 vaccine. But, if you are experiencing these, your vaccination may be delayed until you are feeling better. This is so you know how you feel isn’t a side effect of the vaccine.
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Arent Antibodies Enough To Protect Me
If youve already had COVID-19, arent the antibodies your body built up to fight the virus enough to protect you in the future?
We dont know how long your immunity will last after youve had a natural COVID-19 infection, says Dr. Englund.
She says recent research focused on how long immunity lasts after having COVID-19 is unclear, and scientists believe it could be up to eight months. But, she clarifies: The study to determine that information included only 200 patients, so theres not a whole lot of data yet. And the best way to ensure youre protected is to get vaccinated.
Dr. Englund notes that for those whove had COVID-19 and have long haul symptoms , getting the vaccine seems to help them finally recover from those lasting symptoms.
If you have long COVID-19 at this point in time, please consider getting the vaccine, Dr. Englund urges. It is not going to make you worse and theres a small chance that it might actually make you feel better.
Q My Father Occasionally Takes Care Of My Young Toddler Is There A Possibility That The Pneumococcal Bacteria May Be Passed In Between Them
The bacteria is spread through direct contact, respiratory droplets from coughing or sneezing, and articles contaminated with these infected droplets.
Other than the elderly or those with chronic medical conditions, children below five years old, and especially those below two, are at increased risk for the disease. This is why pneumococcal vaccination is a routine part of infant and childhood immunisation schedules worldwide, including in Singapore.
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. Review of pneumococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present, as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious pneumococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is in limited use. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.
Where Can I Find These Vaccines
Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.
PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.
Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.
When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.
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Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.
Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .
Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.
A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.
Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.
There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.
The two types are:
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
- Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.
According to the
- roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
- 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
- 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease
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Patients In Health Care Institutions
Residents of long-term care facilities should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Recommendations for Use for information about pneumococcal vaccination of individuals at increased risk of IPD. Refer to Immunization of Patients in Health Care Institutions in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of patients in health care institutions.
Can Children Get The Vaccine
Young people aged 16 to 17
All 16 and 17-year-olds can now get two doses of the coronavirus vaccine. 16 and 17-year-olds can get their second vaccine 12 weeks after their first dose. You can book your jabs in different ways, depending on where you live:
- In England you will be contacted by the NHS, you can book online, or you can visit a walk-in clinic
- In Scotland if youre over 16, you can register to get the vaccine on the NHS inform website
- In Wales you can contact your local health board.
All young people aged 16 or over are now eligible for a booster vaccine once three months have passed since their second coronavirus vaccine. It’s currently unclear how 16 and 17-year-olds will be offered their booster vaccine.
Read more about the coronavirus booster vaccine on the NHS website.
Children aged 12-15
All children in the UK aged 12-15 can now also get two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. In England, 12-15-year-old children will primarily receive their COVID-19 vaccination in their school, but walk-in centres are now becoming available. If your child has tested positive for COVID-19 they need to wait four weeks before they can have their vaccine. All second doses will be given once 12 weeks have passed since their first dose.
Some children aged 12-15 are also eligible for a booster vaccine, once three months has passed since their main doses:
- Those who are in a clinical risk group .
- Those who live with someone who is immunosuppressed .
Children aged 5-11
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Who Should Get Pneumococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children younger than 2 years old and all adults 65 years or older. In certain situations, older children and other adults should also get pneumococcal vaccines. Below is more information about who should and should not get each type of pneumococcal vaccine.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine
- People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you or your child:
- Feel dizzy
- Have vision changes
- Have ringing in the ears
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Pneumonia Can Be Preventedvaccines Can Help
Some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 have had pneumonia. Learn more about COVID-19.
Pneumonia, an infection of the lungs, needlessly affects millions of people worldwide each year.
Pneumonia can often be prevented and can usually be treated.
Lower your risk of pneumonia with vaccines and other healthy living practices.
CDC data showed that in the United States during 2018:
- 1.5 million people were diagnosed with pneumonia in an emergency department
- Approximately 44,000 people died from pneumonia
Most of the people affected by pneumonia in the United States are adults. Vaccines and appropriate treatment could prevent many of these deaths.
Effectiveness Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Children respond very well to the pneumococcal vaccine.
The introduction of this vaccine into the NHS childhood vaccination schedule has resulted in a large reduction in pneumococcal disease.
The pneumococcal vaccine given to older children and adults is thought to be around 50 to 70% effective at preventing pneumococcal disease.
Both types of pneumococcal vaccine are inactivated or “killed” vaccines and do not contain any live organisms. They cannot cause the infections they protect against.
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What Is In The Coronavirus Vaccines
The approved coronavirus vaccines do not contain any components of animal origin.
A full list of ingredients for the qualitative and quantitative composition of the vaccines can be found:
You shouldnt have the vaccine if you have had a severe allergic reaction to any of the vaccine ingredients, or experience anaphylaxis after the first dose. For advice specific to you and your condition, its best to speak to your GP or a health care professional who knows your medical history.
How Effective Is The Coronavirus Vaccine Is Protection Instant
All approved coronavirus vaccines are very effective. But protection from any vaccine takes time to build up and, in general, the older you are the longer it takes. Its thought that it will take at least 2 weeks in younger people and at least 3 weeks in older people before you can expect a good antibody response.
A recent study has shown that fully vaccinated people are three times less likely to be infected with coronavirus. The first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine will give you some protection from the virus. But you need to have 2 doses of the vaccine to give you the best protection. Therefore, its really important you continue to protect yourself and others from catching or spreading the virus.
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Why Is Pneumonia Dangerous What Are The Possible Complications Of Leaving This Condition Untreated
Pneumonia can usually be treated successfully without leading to complications. However, complications like the ones listed below can develop in some patients, especially those in high-risk groups.
Fluid or pus could get accumulated between the covering of the lungs and the inner lining of the chest wall this is called a pleural effusion . A chest tube may be needed to drain the fluid/pus.
Pus might collect in the lung area infected with pneumonia . Rarely this may require surgery.
Bacteria can spread to the bloodstream and other organs. This is a serious complication since the infection can cause the blood pressure to be dangerously low.
Although most people recover from pneumonia, it can be fatal in some cases. Approximately 5 to 10 percent of patients admitted to a general medical ward, and almost 30 percent of patients with severe infection admitted to an intensive care unit can die.