Q How Do You Get Lung Cancer
Bacteria Can Collect But Pose No Risk To Health
Claims that mask-wearing causes an assortment of health concerns ranging from hypoxia, or oxygen reduction, to weakening the immune system have been previously debunked.
A claim in November alleging people were arriving to intensive care units sick with pneumonia from mask-wearing has also been debunked.
The petri dish image shows a heavy growth of fungi, not just bacteria!” said Dr. Emad El-Omar, a professor of medicine at UNSW Australias St George and Sutherland Clinical School, in a September email to AFP Fact Check.
“This is most likely because the dish has been incubating for a long time and is contaminated by mould spores from the air, etc.
Bacteria and other microorganisms, normally present in exhalation or from sweating, can collect on masks but pose no risk to health as long as masks are washed regularly or disposed of, as recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Bacterial pneumonia is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and is more common in low- and middle-income countries where fewer people get the pneumococcal vaccine, according to the CDC.
What Are The Signs Someone Is Approaching End Of Life
As people reach the final stages of long-term lung disease there are often typical physical changes. But its not always easy to predict when life will come to an end.
Each persons experience at the end of life is different. Experiencing these symptoms doesnt necessarily mean someone is close to death.
Most long-term lung conditions get gradually worse over several years. The most common symptom is feeling increasingly out of breath. Some peoples breathing might get worse much more quickly, over weeks or months. This is particularly true of interstitial lung diseases, such as IPF.
For those in the final stages of a lung condition, breathing becomes noticeably worse. After each flare-up, or exacerbation, their lung function doesnt quite get back to the level it was before and breathing becomes more difficult.
Your lungs become less efficient as long-term lung disease develops. Any exertion, even just changing your position, talking, or eating, might make you feel out of breath. It can become uncomfortable to breathe if you lie flat, so you could try sleeping in a fairly upright position. Reduced lung function may result in low levels of oxygen in the blood. This can cause fluid retention in your legs and tummy, which can be uncomfortable. Flare-ups usually reduce oxygen in your blood further and can make these symptoms worse.
Other symptoms might include a troublesome cough, poor appetite, chest pain and disturbed sleep patterns.
The most common physical symptoms are:
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Top Tips For Caring For Someone Who Needs Help Eating:
- Face the person so they can see you and their food.
- If the person normally wears glasses or hearing aids, help them to put them on. This will help them to see what youre doing and to hear what youre saying.
- Offer smaller meals or portions that dont overwhelm the person.
- Let the person eat slowly. Allow plenty of time for them to chew their food and swallow it. They might need to catch their breath before each mouthful.
- Watch for clues to help you tell when they have finished swallowing. If its hard to tell, ask the person if theyve finished or to open their mouth to see if there is any food left inside.
- For drinks, use a wide cup or glass, so the drinker doesnt have to tilt their head back. You could also use a straw, for cold drinks.
- Dont rush the meal. This could increase the risk of food entering the persons airways.
- Look out for signs of tiredness. If the person is getting sleepy, it is best for them to stop eating even if they havent finished their meal. This is because people are more likely to cough or choke on food.
- If possible, try and make sure the person waits at least 15 minutes before going back to bed or lying down. This reduces the chances of food and drink coming back up the throat and causing them to choke.
How Are Lung Nodules Diagnosed
Most people find out they have a lung nodule after getting an imaging test in preparation for a procedure or another purpose. The findings are often a surprise.
If an imaging test shows a lung nodule, your healthcare provider may recommend active surveillance. In six to 12 months, you get another CT scan. Nodules that stay the same size during a two-year surveillance period are not likely to be cancer. You may be able to stop getting CT scans.
Your provider may order further tests if the nodule is large or it grows. These tests include:
- Bronchoscopy: While youre sedated, your provider threads a thin tube down your throat into the lung. A tiny surgical instrument on the end of the scope snips and retrieves a tissue sample from the nodule. A lab analyzes this biopsy sample for abnormal cells.
- CT scan-guided biopsy: For nodules on the outer part of the lung, your provider uses CT images to guide a thin needle through the skin and into the lung. This needle biopsy takes tissue samples from the nodule to examine for abnormal cells.
- Positron emission tomography scan: A PET scan uses a safe, injectable radioactive chemical and an imaging device to detect diseased cells in organs.
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Cough And Cold Medicines
Be careful with cough and cold medicines. They may not be safe for young children or for people who have certain health problems, so check the label first. If you do use these medicines, always follow the directions about how much to use based on age and weight.
Always check to see if any over-the-counter cough or cold medicines you are taking contain acetaminophen. If they do, make sure the acetaminophen you are taking in your cold medicine plus any other acetaminophen you may be taking is not higher than the daily recommended dose. Ask your doctor or pharmacist how much you can take every day.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
To help Veterans suffering from lung diseases like COPD, VA is funding research into the development of a 3D-printed artificial lung. The research, led by a team at the VA Ann Arbor Health Care System in Michigan, has a goal of building the first wearable artificial lung that is both compatible with living tissue and capable of supporting breathing.
Researchers see the artificial lung as a temporary measure to help patients waiting for lung transplants, or to aid breathing in those whose lungs are healing. According to the team, future versions could have longer-term applications. The research is focused on patients with end-stage COPD, chronic coughing, lung infections, or respiratory failure. Removal of carbon dioxide in the blood is a critical need for many Veterans with COPD, and the artificial lung will be designed to help in that process.
In addition to COPD, the 3D lung could be used as a temporary measure for people with diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, a life-threatening injury that allows fluid to leak into the lungs, impairing breathing.
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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
A new cause of severe pneumonia was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. Within a year, 58 cases, including 33 deaths, were reported in Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates , France, Germany, Italy, Tunisia, and the United Kingdom. Since 2012 there have been over 1730 cases. The World Health Organization warns this new viral illness could become a pandemic. However, person-to-person transmission has been limited to close contacts. In the United States, no cases of MERS have been reported since 2014.
Are There Special Precautions That People With Cancer Should Take
People with cancer, people who are in active cancer treatment, older patients, and people with other serious chronic medical conditions, such as lung disease, diabetes, or heart disease, are at higher risk for the more severe form of COVID-19 that could lead to death. Studies have shown that people with active or progressing cancer may be at higher risk than those whose cancer is in remission. The same rules apply for people with cancer as for those without cancer: Be sure to wash your hands well. Avoid touching your face, and avoid close contact with people who are sick.
People who are at higher risk of getting very sick from COVID-19 should think carefully about non-essential travel during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially if the travel will involve areas with high or increasing rates of COVID-19. This is especially important for people who have not yet been fully vaccinated against COVID-19. If you are not vaccinated, stay at home to reduce your exposure to the virus, practice physical distancing, and avoid social gatherings, including smaller gatherings with family or friends who don’t live with you. Wear a face covering or mask, and make your trip out as brief as possible. If you have been vaccinated and live in an area with low COVID-19 transmission rates, you are able to return to normal activities. In places with high or increasing rates of COVID-19, masking is still important. Always follow local government guidelines for masking and social distancing.
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How To Wear A Mask
Your face covering does not need to be tightly fitted, but it does need to cover your nose and mouth. In the rare case that you absolutely cannot tolerate a face covering, please work with your doctor to find an alternate solution, such as a face shield. While face shields are not considered interchangeable with masks, evidence suggests they can help to limit the spread of virus particles.
How Common Is Pneumonia With Lung Cancer
Pneumonia and lung cancer are often experienced at the same time. Research has found that roughly 50% to 70% of people with lung cancer will experience pneumonia at some point during the course of their disease. Having pneumonia while battling lung cancer also increases the risk of severe or life-threatening consequences.
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Molecular Testing For Galactomannan As A Test For Invasive Aspergillosis
Early diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis remains problematic, because microbiologic proof is often not possible. IA may be suggested by CT findings which may include nodular infiltrates, with or without cavitation, sometimes with patchy or segmental consolidation. Peribronchial infiltrates and tree-in-bud patterns can also be seen, and radiographic findings vary with host factors and the degree of immunosuppression. As highlighted in , while CT imaging may be suggestive of IA, the range of potential radiographic patterns overlaps with other causes of pneumonia. Thus, CT imaging is not sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis.
Figure 1a. 50 year old woman with relapsed refractory B-cell lymphoma, neutropenic, with fevers, presenting with consolidation in the lingula. Galactomannan index was 1.98.
Figure 1b. 60 year old man with history of Hodgkins lymphoma with autologous bone marrow transplant, 3 years later developed myelodysplastic syndrome with progression to acute myeloid leukemia, presented with neutropenic fevers following. Nodular and ground glass opacities are present bilaterally. BALF was positive for Aspergillus.
Figure 1c. 68 year old woman with acute myeloid leukemia with neutropenia after induction chemotherapy. Numerous bilateral pulmonary nodules were seen, most prominent in the RLL superior segment. BALF was positive for aspergillus.
BAL GM and serum testing in patients with suspected disease
Treatment Of Viral Infections
There are not as many choices for treating viral pneumonia. Oseltamivir , zanamivir , and peramivir have been the recommended drugs for influenza A or B infections, but some strains of influenza A are resistant to them. Generally, the use of these drugs is only recommended if they can be started in the first 48 hours of symptoms. Taken early, these medications may be effective in reducing the severity and duration of illness. However, treatment initiated even after 48 hours may benefit children with severe disease.
Intravenous immunoglobulins may be used in immunodeficient children who develop some viral pneumonias, as they have been shown to improve outcomes.
People with viral pneumonias are at risk for what are called “superinfections,” which generally refers to a secondary bacterial infection, usually caused by S pneumoniae, S aureus, or H influenzae. Doctors most commonly recommend treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefpodoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, or a newer fluoroquinolone if these secondary infections occur.
People with pneumonia caused by varicella-zoster and herpes simplex viruses are usually admitted to the hospital and treated with intravenous acyclovir for 7 days.
No antiviral drugs have been proven effective yet in adults with RSV, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus, coronaviruses, or hantavirus. Treatment is largely supportive, with people receiving oxygen and ventilator therapy as needed.
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Q Where Does Lung Cancer Spread First
What Is Lung Cancer What Is Pneumonia
Pneumonia is an infection of one or both lungs usually is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. There are many types of pneumonia based on the type of microbe causing the infection. Moreover, a microbe can cause different kinds of pneumonia. Sometimes pneumonia affects a portion of one lung, and in other cases, the infection has throughout both lungs. Some people with pneumonia develop associated fluid collections. Some causes of pneumonia can be very destructive to lung tissue, for example, Staphylococcus aureus.
One-third of all people who developed pneumonia subsequently died from the infection before antibiotics were discovered. Currently, over 3 million people develop pneumonia each year in the United States. Over a half a million of these people are hospitalized for treatment. Although most of these people recover, approximately 5% will not recover from the infection and die. Pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States.
Lung Cancer Symptoms and Signs
Symptoms of primary lung cancers include:
Other signs and symptoms of lung cancer include:
- Wheezing or hoarseness, which cause blockage or inflammation in the lungs.
- Repeated respiratory infections, such as bronchitis or pneumonia.
Symptoms of lung tumors that have spread to other areas of the body depends upon their location and size. About 30% to 40% of people with lung cancer have some symptoms or signs of cancer that has spread.
Pneumonia Symptoms and Signs
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What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor
You may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- What is the best plan of action for me?
- Do I need a biopsy?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Lung nodules are fairly common and usually arent cause for concern. Still, it can be alarming to learn that you have a spot on your lung. Fortunately, the majority of lung nodules arent a sign of lung cancer. A noncancerous condition causes the abnormal growth. Most benign lung nodules dont need treatment. If a nodule is cancerous, your healthcare provider can discuss next steps.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/28/2021.
When To Call A Doctor For Pneumonia
If you were recently diagnosed with a mild case of pneumonia but are not getting better or are experiencing worsened symptoms, see your doctor as soon as possible. In some cases, pneumonia can get worse and complications can occur that require hospitalization.
Research has shown that corticosteroids, which are drugs designed to reduce inflammation, can also be used to treat pneumonia. They are helpful for decreasing the risk of death and the need for more serious medical interventions, such as ventilators or prolonged hospitalization in people who have more serious cases of infection.
If you are hospitalized, you are given medications through an IV directly into your bloodstream. You may also need help breathing, so oxygen therapy will be used. You could be given oxygen through a face mask, your nose, or another piece of medical equipment such as a ventilator.
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What Do I Need To Know About Covid
There are several COVID-19 vaccines that are now in use in different parts of the world. In the United States, the 3 vaccines in use are made by Pfizer BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen, manufactured by Johnson & Johnson. Globally, other vaccines are available or are in process of receiving Emergency Use Listing by the World Health Organization .
For COVID-19 vaccines that are 2-dose vaccines, both doses followed by a third dose are recommended to ensure full vaccination. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized the use of mix and match booster doses on October 20, 2021, and this was approved by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . For example, someone who received the initial vaccination series with the Moderna vaccine could receive a booster dose of the Pfizer vaccine.
People who are moderately or severely immunocompromised should receive an additional primary dose of either the Pfizer or the Moderna vaccine. This is not the same as a booster dose. Instead, it is part of the primary series of the vaccinations. For moderately to severely immunocompromised people, which includes people who are being treated for blood cancers or have had bone marrow/stem cell or organ transplants:
- People age 5 and older who received 2 doses of the Pfizer vaccine should receive an additional dose 28 days after the 2nd shot.
- People who are 18 and older who received 2 doses of the Moderna vaccine should receive an additional dose 28 days after the 2nd shot.