Causes And Common Sources Of Infection
Legionella bacteria are found naturally in freshwater environments, like lakes and streams. The bacteria can become a health concern when they grow and spread in human-made building water systems like
- Showerheads and sink faucets
- Cooling towers
- Hot tubs
- Hot water tanks and heaters
- Large, complex plumbing systems
Home and car air-conditioning units do not use water to cool the air, so they are not a risk for Legionella growth.
However, Legionella can grow in the windshield wiper fluid tank of a vehicle , particularly if the tank is filled with water and not genuine windshield cleaner fluid.
Learn four key steps that can lead to Legionella growing in building water systems and spreading to people.
Get The Necessary Vaccines
In addition, there are several vaccines that can help protect against some viruses and bacteria that cause pneumonia, Cutler says.
These include the following:
- Pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends this vaccine for babies and children younger than two years old and adults age 65 and older.
- Influenza vaccine. The CDC recommends everyone six months and older get a flu vaccine every year to protect against the infectious diseases and related health complications, like pneumonia.
- Hib vaccine. The CDC recommends this vaccine for all children younger than five years old. It protects against the Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria that can cause pneumonia and meningitis.
How Common Is Pneumonia
Approximately 1 million adults in the United States are hospitalized each year for pneumonia and 50,000 die from the disease. It is the second most common reason for being admitted to the hospital — childbirth is number one. Pneumonia is the most common reason children are admitted to the hospital in the United States. Seniors who are hospitalized for pneumonia face a higher risk of death compared to any of the top 10 other reasons for hospitalization.
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What Is A Pneumonia And What Are Its Symptoms
Pneumonia is an infection of one or both lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
The symptoms of pneumonia and influenza are actually the same. A patient may have fever, muscle and joint pains, itchy or sore throat, cough, colds, headache, chills. While both flu and pneumonia can be both caused by a virus, the latter can also be caused by causative microorganisms like fungi or bacteria. And since the two have overlapping symptoms, it is important to consult a doctor for a workupundergo blood test, or chest x-ray.
Impact Of Infections In Nursing Homes
Over 1.5 million people live in 16,000 nursing homes in the USA, according to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. More than 88% of these people are 65 years of age and older, and 45% are age 85 years and older . It is estimated that the number of people who will require NH care in the USA will reach 5.3 million by 2030 . The acuity of illness in this population has increased substantially in the last decade, as has the risk of acquiring new infections. Although recent estimates are lacking, approximately 2 million infections occur in US NHs each year . In addition, a point prevalence survey revealed that the prevalence of NH-associated infections on the day of the survey was 5.2% in Veterans Administration Community Living Center facilities in the USA . Internationally, a 3-year study in The Netherlands reported a prevalence of healthcare-associated infections of 6.7% in 2007, 7.6% in 2008 and 7.6% in 2009, ranging from 0 to 32.4% between NHs .
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Antibiotic Treatments For Community
For a more detailed discussion of the different types of antibiotics, see the “Antibiotic Classes” section below.
Joint guidelines issued in 2019 by the IDSA/ATS recommend that mild CAP in otherwise healthy people be treated with amoxicillin or doxycycline. If the person lives in an area with low S pneumoniae resistance to macrolides, a macrolide antibiotic therapy may also be considered.
The British Thoracic Society recommends amoxicillin, doxycycline, or clarithromycin as alternatives.
Many people with heart disease, kidney disease, diabetes, or other coexisting conditions may still be treated as outpatients.
People with coexisting conditions should be given a macrolide plus a beta-lactam or a fluoroquinolone as monotherapy. Doxycycline can be given as an alternative to a macrolide. Current recommendations call for at least 5 days of antibiotic therapy. People should have no fever for at least 48 hours and no more than one sign of continuing severe illness before discontinuing antibiotics.
Many cases of CAP are caused by S pneumoniae — Gram-positive bacteria that usually respond to antibiotics known as beta-lactams , and to macrolides. However, resistant strains of S pneumoniae are increasingly common. Most resistant strains respond to fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin , gemifloxacin , or moxifloxacin .
In addition, other important causes of CAP, particularly in younger people, are atypical bacteria, which respond to macrolides , or newer fluoroquinolones.
What You Can Do To Stay Healthy
Keeping your pets safe from illnesses is no different than keeping yourself and your family healthy.
You should always practice cleanliness when it comes to your pet, says Denish. Even if the likelihood of passing a disease between you and your dog is low, take simple precautions like washing hands and avoiding being licked around the face. Denish adds be educated, and dont strictly rely on the internet for information. Talk with your physician as well as your veterinarian whenever youre sick about the potential risks to others in your family, as well as your pets.
The risk for infection both from owners to their pets, as well as in the other direction, is always increased for humans and animals with compromised immune systems. For owners and pets afflicted with immune disorders caused by infections, chemotherapy, steroid use, diabetes, etc., every care needs to be taken to avoid cross-infection. Developing a good rapport with both your veterinarian and your family doctor will help maintain your health and that of your pets.
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Is Pneumonia Contagious Yes When It’s Caused By Bacteria Or Viruses
- Most types of pneumonia are contagious.
- When pneumonia is caused by a virus or bacteria as it usually is it can spread from person to person through respiratory droplets.
- To prevent the spread of pneumonia, you should practice good hygiene, work to boost your immune system, refrain from smoking, and get the necessary vaccines.
Pneumonia is an infection that causes the air sacs in one or both lungs to fill with fluid or pus. Each year, more than 250,000 Americans are hospitalized with pneumonia, and about 50,000 die from the disease.
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia can vary depending on the type and severity, but they typically include:
- Difficulty breathing
There are many different types of pneumonia and most of them can be contagious. Here’s what you need to know about the types of pneumonia, how they spread, and how to protect yourself.
The Common Cold And The Flu
While humans and animals are both capable of developing symptoms that are typically associated with the common cold, the good news is that the likelihood of a person transmitting the illness to a dog is extremely low. Coates says, in almost every case, the viruses that cause cold-like symptoms in people and dogs are species-specific. Colds in both dogs and people generally resolve on their own, but if symptoms worsen or fail to improve, its best to see your doctor .
As far as transmission goes, the same cant necessarily be said for the flu. While most of the medical community has long believed that the flu cannot be passed from human to animal, recent cases have shown that the adaptable nature of the flu may very well mean that some strains can indeed be passed from humans to other animals, including dogs. In truth though, the risk of this occurring is still extremely small . While some pet owners might swear that their dog came down with the sniffles shortly after they did, this is most likely a coincidence.
The good news is that while your family should keep their distance from you while youre suffering with the latest cold or flu bug, you can still curl up with your dog for comfort and emotional supportand the same goes for when your dog is feeling under the weather.
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Aspiration Pneumonia And Anaerobic Bacteria
The mouth contains a mixture of bacteria that is normally harmless. However, if this mixture reaches the lungs, it can cause a serious condition called aspiration pneumonia. This may happen after a head injury or general anesthesia, or when a person takes drugs or alcohol. In such cases, the gag reflex does not work as well as it should, so bacteria can enter the airways. Unlike other organisms that are inhaled, some of the bacteria that cause aspiration pneumonia do not need oxygen to live. These bacteria are called anaerobic bacteria.
What Is Pneumococcal Disease
Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae . People with pneumococcal disease can spread the bacteria to others when they cough or sneeze.
Pneumococcus bacteria can cause infections in many parts of the body, including
- Brain and spinal cord tissue
Symptoms of pneumococcal infection depend on the part of the body affected. Symptoms can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, stiff neck, confusion, increased sensitivity to light, joint pain, chills, ear pain, sleeplessness, and irritability. In severe cases, pneumococcal disease can cause hearing loss, brain damage, and death. You can find a full list of symptoms for each part of the body that is affected on the symptoms and complications of pneumococcal disease page.
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Signs Of Pneumonia In Elderly Adults
If any of the following symptoms present in a senior, it is crucial to see a doctor as soon as possible. However, its important to note that older individuals may experience different symptoms of infection compared to younger individuals.
- Green, yellow or bloody sputum that comes up when coughing
- Feeling lethargic
- Suddenly feeling worse following a recent cold or bout of flu
- Confusion or changes in behavior
- Loss of appetite
- Blue lips or fingernails due to a drop in blood oxygen level
Be aware that it is possible for seniors to contract a milder version of pneumonia . Symptoms of walking pneumonia can be so mild that a senior or their caregiver may not even notice them.
There Have Been Reports Circulating About People Dying Of Pneumonia What Could Possibly Be The Reason Behind These Deaths
Filipinos have a tendency to self-medicate. Then theyll only consult the doctor when they have gotten worse. Any medical condition, if not treated properly and promptly, can lead to complications, which could result to death.
We should also look at the profile of patients. The most susceptible are the very young and the elderly. At high risk as well are people with other health conditionspeople with diabetes, high blood, cancer, HIV, and patients who are immunocompromised.
Another factor could also be the climate. A virus jumps from person to another and spreads easily when the air is cold and dry.
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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
A new cause of severe pneumonia was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. Within a year, 58 cases, including 33 deaths, were reported in Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates , France, Germany, Italy, Tunisia, and the United Kingdom. Since 2012 there have been over 1730 cases. The World Health Organization warns this new viral illness could become a pandemic. However, person-to-person transmission has been limited to close contacts. In the United States, no cases of MERS have been reported since 2014.
What Is Pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflammation of the lung tissue usually but not exclusively caused by infection from bacteria, virus, or fungus. Pneumonia causes the air sacs at the end of the airways in the lungs to fill with pus. If inflammation affects both lungs, the infection is termed double pneumonia. If it affects one lung, it is termed single pneumonia. If it affects only a certain lobe of a lung, it’s termed lobar pneumonia. Most pneumonia is caused by bacteria and viruses, but some pneumonia is caused by inhaling toxic chemicals that damage lung tissue. Pneumonia can cause fever, chills, cough, and difficulty breathing. Severe pneumonia can result in death.
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How Is It Treated
Treatment depends on the type of infection and its severity. Mild infections can be treated at home with plenty of fluids, rest and by controlling fevers with medication, according to the American Lung Association.
Bacterial infections can be treated with a range of antibiotics, including azithromycin, amoxicillin and erythromycin. For viral infections, antivirals are sometimes prescribed. Clintons physician announced that she is currently on antibiotics, meaning she must have a bacterial form of infection.
Side Effects Of Antibiotics
Most antibiotics have the following side effects :
- Allergic reactions . These reactions can range from mild skin rashes to rare but severe — even life threatening — anaphylactic shock.
- Infection with Clostridium difficile, the bacteria responsible for causing severe diarrhea, inflammation of the colon , and abdominal pain. This condition can be fatal.
- Interactions with certain drugs, including some over-the-counter medications and supplements. People should inform their doctors of all medications and OTC preparations they are taking, as well as any drug allergies they might have.
- Stomach problems .
- Vaginal infections. Taking Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements or eating yogurt with active acidophilus cultures may help restore healthy bacteria that reduce the risk for such infections. There is no strong evidence that this helps prevent yeast infections.
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How Is Pneumonia Treated
How pneumonia is treated depends on the germs that cause it.
- Bacterial pneumonia: Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics. The specific antibiotic choice depends on such factors as your general health, other health conditions you may have, the type of medications you are currently taking , your recent use of antibiotics, any evidence of antibiotic resistance in the local community and your age. Medicines to relieve pain and lower fever may also be helpful. Ask your doctor if you should take a cough suppressant. Its important to be able to cough to clear your lungs.
- Viral pneumonia: Antibiotics are not used to fight viruses. There are no treatments for most viral causes of pneumonia. However, if the flu virus is thought to be the cause, antiviral drugs might be prescribed, such as oseltamivir , zanamivir , or peramivir , to decrease the length and severity of the illness. Over-the-counter medicines to relieve pain and lower fever are usually recommended. Other medicines and therapies such as breathing treatments and exercises to loosen mucus may be prescribed by your doctor.
- Fungal pneumonia: Antifungal medication is prescribed if a fungus is the cause of your pneumonia.
Pneumonia Arising In Institutional Settings
- Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs contracted during a hospital stay. This type of pneumonia tends to be more serious because patients in the hospital already have weakened defense mechanisms, and the infecting organisms are usually more dangerous than those encountered in the community. Hospital patients are particularly vulnerable to Gram-negative bacteria, which are resistant to many antibiotics, and staphylococci. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is also called nosocomial pneumonia.
- Ventilator-associated pneumonia . A subgroup of hospital-acquired pneumonia is VAP, a very serious infection contracted by patients on ventilators in hospitals and long-term nursing facilities.
- Nursing-home acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia acquired in a nursing home or other long-term care facility is the second most common type of infection in these facilities, and it is usually bacterial. This type of pneumonia is sometimes difficult to diagnose as older populations are less likely to report fever, chills, and chest pain. Chest radiography and physical exam are necessary. Sputum sample and antigen tests may be helpful.
The term “healthcare associated pneumonia” is also utilized for all the above types of pneumonia as a group.
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What Is The Outlook For Pneumonia
People who are otherwise healthy often recover quickly when given prompt and proper care. However, pneumonia is a serious condition and can be life-threatening if left untreated and especially for those individuals at increased risk for pneumonia.
Even patients who have been successfully treated and have fully recovered may face long-term health issues. Children who have recovered from pneumonia have an increased risk of chronic lung diseases. Adults may experience:
- General decline in quality of life for months or years
Can You Make Your Dog Sick
Some of the best things about pet ownership involve sharing. We share our love and affection, prime real estate on the bed or couch, and even our meals. Unfortunately, another thing we share with our pets can be unwanted visitors in the form of germs and infection. Animals can pass a multitude of diseases to humans in a process called zoonosis.
In recent years, the advance of swine flu, bird flu and other animal-borne diseases have revealed just how serious this problem can be. Whats lesser known, and even lesser studied, is the prospect of reverse zoonosis, which involves the passing of disease from humans to animals.
While less prevalent than disease transmission in the other direction, we can indeed make our dogs sick. Here are some diseases you can give your dog, and a few you cant.
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