Risk Factors For Hospital
Pneumonia that is contracted in the hospital is called hospital-acquired, or nosocomial, pneumonia. It is the most common hospital-acquired infection in the intensive care unit . It affects an estimated 5 to 10 of every 1,000 hospitalized patients every year. More than half of these cases may be due to strains of bacteria that have developed resistance to antibiotics. In fact, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant P aeruginosa are leading causes of death from hospital-acquired pneumonia. Those at highest risk are:
- Older people and the very young.
- People with long-term or severe medical conditions, such as lung problems, heart disease, nervous system disorders, and cancer.
- People who have had surgery, particularly people over age 80 years. Among the surgical procedures that pose a particular risk are removal of the spleen , abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, or operations that impair coughing.
- People who have been in the ICU. This is particularly true for newborns or patients on breathing machines . People who lie flat on their backs are at particular risk for aspiration pneumonia. Raising the person up may reduce this risk.
- People who have received sedation. Hospital patients who receive sedatives also have a higher risk of developing nosocomial pneumonia.
- People who received antibiotics within the previous 90 days.
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Coughing In The Shed Calf Pneumonia
COUGHING IN THE SHED CALF PNEUMONIA
What is calf respiratory disease?
Calf respiratory disease or pneumonia is an infection in the lungs. It can affect calves of any age and is generally the result of pathogens normally present in the respiratory tract that become an issue when the calfs immune system is compromised.
What factors can result in pneumonia in calves?
One of the most common factors resulting in a compromised immunity and therefore development of pneumonia is inadequate colostrum intake remember the 4 Qs! Quality, Quantity, Quickly and sQueaky clean.
Other factors that could contribute to development of respiratory disease is:
- Mixing calves of different ages,
- Overcrowding of calves,
- Stressors such as cold weather
- Poor ventilation in the shed or wet/soiled bedding materials
- Inhalation of liquids into the lungs
- Often it is a combination of more than one of these factors resulting in pneumonia.
What does a calf with pneumonia look like?
- o Temperature can increase before any of the following signs start showing so taking rectal temperatures once daily for the first 10 days can help identify sick calves early, increasing the chance of effective treatment
How to prevent calf pneumonia:
Treatment of calf pneumonia:
Indications And Clinical Uses
In cattle, gamithromycin is used for treatment of bovine respiratory disease caused by M. haemolytica, P. multocida, and Histophilus somni . It is also effective for treating infections caused by Mycoplasma. It also may be used for control of respiratory disease in beef and nonlactating dairy cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with M. haemolytica and P. multocida. In horses, clinical studies are not available, but experimental studies indicate that it may have efficacy for treating infections caused by Streptococcus equi and Rhodococcus equi.
In , 2017
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Choosing The Right Antibiotic
Dozens of antibiotics are available for treating pneumonia, but selecting the best drug is sometimes difficult. People with pneumonia need an antibiotic that is effective against the organism causing the disease. When the organism is unknown, empiric therapy is given, meaning the doctor chooses which antibiotic is likely to work based on factors such as the persons age, health, and severity of the illness.
In adults, the choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the severity of infection and site of care. In all cases, the more quickly antibiotic therapy is started once the diagnosis is made, the better the outcomes. In most cases, the organism causing the pneumonia will not be known before antibiotic therapy is started, so the doctor must choose an antibiotic regimen based on history and symptoms. Later, the therapy may be altered when more information becomes available. To determine the appropriate antibiotic, the doctor must first answer a number of questions:
Once an antibiotic has been chosen, there are still difficulties:
- Individuals respond differently to the same antibiotic, depending on their age, health, size, and other factors.
- People can be allergic to certain antibiotics, thus requiring alternatives.
- People may have strains of bacteria that are resistant to certain antibiotics.
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How Much Penicillin To Give A Cow
How Much Penicillin To Give A Cow? DOSAGE: The dosage for cattle, sheep, swine, and horses is 3000 units per pound of body weight, or 1.0 mL for each 100 pounds of bodyweight, once daily. Treatment should not exceed 7 days in non-lactating dairy and beef cattle, sheep, and swine, or 5 days in lactating dairy cattle.
How do you give a cow penicillin? Penicillin Injectable is administered by the intramuscular route. The product is ready for injection after warming the vial to room temperature and shaking to ensure a uniform suspension. The daily dose of penicillin is 3,000 units per pound of body weight .
How much penicillin do you give a dairy cow? Penicillin is an antibiotic commonly used in lactating dairy cows. It was approved many years ago and the label calls for a dose of 1cc/100 pounds of bodyweight once a day. At this dose the label recommendation is 48 hours for milk withdrawal and 10 days for slaughter withdrawal.
What is the best antibiotic for cattle? At any stage of life, calves, cows, and bulls can encounter bacterial infections like pinkeye or infected wounds that require treatment with antibiotics. Examples of commonly used antibiotics for these conditions include penicillin, tetracycline, ceftiofur, florfenicol, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, and tulathromycin.
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Things That You Can Do To Help Your Child At Home Are
- Control the fever with the proper medicine and right strength for the age of your child. Fevers lower than 101° F do not need to be treated unless the child is uncomfortable .
- Give your child plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
- See that your child gets lots of rest.
- Do not give over-the-counter cough medicines or other OTC medicines without asking the health provider first. The child needs to cough and bring up the phlegm. Coughing is the bodys way of clearing the infection from the lungs.
- Avoid exposing your child to tobacco smoke or other irritants in the air.
Occupational And Regional Pneumonias
Exposure to chemicals can also cause inflammation and pneumonia. Where you work and live can put you at higher risk for exposure to pneumonia-causing organisms.
- Workers exposed to cattle, pigs, sheep, and horses are at risk for pneumonia caused by anthrax, brucella, and Coxiella burnetii .
Inhalation or respiratory anthrax is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by inhaling the spores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Although the spores are dormant when breathed in, they germinate when exposed to a warm, moist environment, such as the lungs. Not all particles are small enough to pass into the alveoli, or air sacs, but those that do begin to multiply and may spread to the lymphatic system. When the spores germinate, several toxins are released. Particles illustrated are not to scale.
- Agricultural and construction workers in the Southwest are at risk for coccidioidomycosis . The disease is caused by the spores of the fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidiodes posadasii.
- Those working in Ohio and the Mississippi Valley are at risk for histoplasmosis, a lung disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. This fungus grows well in areas enriched with bird or bat droppings.
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Treatment Of Goat Pneumonia
In addition to the common cold and cough, goats get pneumonia. Goat pneumonia is seen to cause shortness of breath. There is pain in the lungs. Goats can die if not acted upon quickly.
The treatment of Cattle pneumonia in goats can be compared to the treatment of pneumonia in cattle. An advisory veterinarian should be consulted. There are many types of goat cold medicines available in the market.
Can Injectable Penicillin Be Given Orally
Penicillin G is soluble in water, attains high concentrations in blood, and is excreted in urine in 4 to 6 hours. Penicillin G is available in crystalline, procaine, and benzathine forms. Because it is unstable at low pH, oral administration is not possible, so the agent is administered by injection.
- Ensure the calf receives enough colostrum
Vaccinating cattle before they get pneumonia can be a very effective way of controlling disease. The vaccine stimulates the animals immune system to produce antibodies. These antibodies help the animal to fight infection when they encounter it. Bovipast RSP provides protection against both viral and bacterial pneumonia. It provides protection against two viral causes of pneumonia, RSV and PI3 viruses and the bacterium Mannheimia haemolytica. Calves can be vaccinated from two weeks of age. The vaccination program is two shots four weeks apart. A booster dose should be given before the next period of risk. Bovipast contains iron regulated protein antigens. Bacteria need iron to multiply and survive in the lungs. The IRPs in Bovipast reduce the risk of these pasteurella bacteria multiplying. Bovipast can be administered at the same time as Bovilis IBR Marker Live.
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Can Pneumonia Be Prevented Or Avoided
There are many factors that can raise your risk for developing pneumonia. These include:
People who have any of the following conditions are also at increased risk:
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- sickle cell disease
You can help prevent pneumonia by doing the following:
- Get the flu vaccine each year. People can develop bacterial pneumonia after a case of the flu. You can reduce this risk by getting the yearly flu shot.
- Get the pneumococcal vaccine. This helps prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria.
- Practice good hygiene. Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
- Dont smoke. Smoking damages your lungs and makes it harder for your body to defend itself from germs and disease. If you smoke, talk to your family doctor about quitting as soon as possible.
- Practice a healthy lifestyle. Eat a balanced diet full of fruits and vegetables. Exercise regularly. Get plenty of sleep. These things help your immune system stay strong.
- Avoid sick people. Being around people who are sick increases your risk of catching what they have.
Is Pneumonia In Calves Contagious
Yes. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia can easily spread in cattle. But, it takes time for it to develop. The calf can get exposed to other infected cattle, especially if the animal coughs nearby. Another way the ailment spreads is through fluids, reproductive tissue, saliva, and urine.
Thats why many experts recommend cattle farmers give their animals enough space to thrive and not overstock their enclosures. Its important for the animal to have the freedom to move around and feel comfortable in the enclosure.
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Compatible With Bovilis Ibr Marker Live
Vaccination with Bovilis IBR Marker Live at the same time as Bovilis Bovipast RSP may be required where IBR involvement has been detected on a farm or where the risk of introduction of the disease is high i.e. purchasing stock or animals returning from shows or sales. The compatibility of Bovilis Bovipast RSP and Bovilis IBR Marker Live has been proven in a challenge study.
Pathogens Causing Calf Pneumonia
A multitude of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and Mycoplasma spp , are involved in different combinations on different farms . It is often suggested that the viruses and mycoplasmas are the primary infections and the bacteria cause a secondary infection in an animal whose defenses have been weakened by the first infection. The most common viruses isolated from enzootic pneumonia cases are:
- Respiratory syncytial virus
- Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus
- Bovine viral diarrhoea virus , has also been implicated in the bovine respiratory disease complex, not as a primary pathogen, but as a disease agent causing immunosuppresion.
Mycoplasmal agents are usually considered to be the most common agents causing the chronic form of enzootic pneumonia, even though Mycoplasma bovis has been identified as the causative agent in many acute outbreaks as well.
The most commonly isolated bacterial organisms are:
- Mannhaeimia spp.
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Is There A Vaccine For Pneumonia
There isnt a vaccine for all types of pneumonia, but 2 vaccines are available. These help prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria. The first is recommended for all children younger than 5 years of age. The second is recommended for anyone age 2 or older who is at increased risk for pneumonia. Getting the pneumonia vaccine is especially important if you:
- Are 65 years of age or older.
- Have certain chronic conditions, such as asthma, lung disease, diabetes, heart disease, sickle cell disease, or cirrhosis.
- Have a weakened immune system because of HIV/AIDS, kidney failure, a damaged or removed spleen, a recent organ transplant, or receiving chemotherapy.
- Have cochlear implants .
The pneumococcal vaccines cant prevent all cases of pneumonia. But they can make it less likely that people who are at risk will experience the severe, and possibly life-threatening, complications of pneumonia.
Antibiotics For Treatment Of Cattle Respiratory Disease
W. D. Whittier, DVM, MSVA-MD Regional College of Vet. Med
Reprinted from VA Tech Livestock Update
A new antibiotic has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration forthe treatment of cattle for respiratory disease. This brings to three thenumber of new antibiotic compounds approved for respiratory disease in recentyears. The active ingredient of the new product is florfenicol and the newproduct will be marketed commercially as Nuflor®. It is a relative of thedrug chloramphenical which was never approved for use in food animals in the USand which generated considerable concern and regulatory action when it was usedillegally in cattle. The newly approved drug is reported to have a highactivity against the bacteria that commonly infect the lungs of cattle affectedwith Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex .
Nuflor® is an injectable product that is labeled for intramuscularadministration. The treatment regime involves two injections given at a 48 hourinterval.
Also approved since 1990 are products containing two other compounds notpreviously approved for cattle. These drugs are ceftiofur contained onNaxcel® and tilmicosin contained in Micotil®. These three drugsgenerally show a higher odds of treatment success probability in laboratorytests against the bacteria of cattle pneumonia than drugs which had beenapproved for respiratory disease treatment previously.
Naxcel®: No slaughter or milk discard time, little tissue irritation
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Who Needs Antibiotics For Uti
While the question seems like it answers itself, treatment of UTIs is not always a straightforward affair. There are different bacteria involved, infections are discovered at different points in their pathology, and different people respond to antibiotics differently. So, while anyone suffering from a UTI will probably need to consider antibiotics, which one is the right one will vary from case to case and from person to person.
How the antibiotic is administered will also need to be determined on a case by case basis. As will the duration of treatment. These days, single-dose antibiotic treatment may also be a viable alternative.
Animal Health: Management Is Your Best Bet At Preventing Infection
Newborn and young calves are often vulnerable to systemic infection if they fail to obtain adequate passive transfer of temporary immunity from the dams antibodies in the colostrum. Systemic infection results when bacteria or their toxins overwhelm the bodys defenses and spread throughout the body via the bloodstream.
According to Claire Windeyer, an assistant professor of production health services at the University of Calgarys faculty of veterinary medicine, bacteria circulating in the blood is called bacteremia. Their toxins in the blood creates a serious condition called endotoxemia. When one or both of these situations results in systemic clinical symptoms, the medical term is septicemia, she says. Unless this condition is quickly treated and resolved, the infection localizes in various organs and/or joints, resulting in joint ill , meningitis, or shock and death due to organ failure.
Nathan Erickson, an assistant professor in large animal clinical sciences at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine in Saskatoon, says there are several ways the infection can enter the bloodstream, including scours, or an umbilical infection. If these bacteria cross into the bloodstream, they can distribute through the body and settle in certain places. These calves need aggressive treatment and management with anti-inflammatories and antibiotics. This should be done in conjunction with help from your veterinarian, he adds.
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How Does Pneumonia Lead To Death
The most common complication from pneumonia is a condition called pleural effusion. This is the buildup of fluid in the membranes around the lungs inside the chest cavity. It causes pain and impairs your ability to breathe. These and other complications of pneumonia can lead to a worsening of pre-existing heart and lung conditions.
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Enzootic Pneumonia In Calves
Duchy College calves in the calf shed. There should be enough space in the calf pen to allow calves to groom themselves, lie down and stretch their limbs and rise without any difficulty.
Enzootic pneumonia in young calves can be chronic and be present with very few clinical signs apart from a dry cough and slightly increased respiratory rate. The acute form of the disease usually manifests itself in an outbreak involving several calves going down with the disease within a 48-hour period. Fever, dullness, inappetance and coughing, often combined with nasal discharge, are the most common symptoms.
There are very little data available on the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia in UK cattle herds, as recording of calf diseases is seldom carried out. Respiratory diseases are, however, considered the second most important cause of death and ill -thrift in calves. The condition is farm related, with some farms suffering serious losses due to calf pneumonia, while on others the disease is either very mild or non-existent. Sporadic outbreaks can, however, be experienced by farms that normally see very little respiratory disease in calves.
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